Multi Stage Fracturing Research Paper

Multi-stage fracturing is an advanced drilling technology that enhances the production capabilities through maximizing the contact area of unconventional wells with the reservoir production zones. During the fracturing process, a special fluid (primarily a mixture of sand and water) is blown out at a high pressure into the shale rock formation creating channels through which hydrocarbons can easily migrate to the well. Multi-stage fracturing is a combination of fracturing and plugging processes. Fractures are made in a reversed order starting form the end of the horizontal hole. Plugs are then placed upon the completion of each stage to prevent communication between the stages.
A Problem with Economic Consequences
A major issue that is encountered during the fracturing process is the hydraulic communication among the stages. This is specifically a common problem in carbonate rocks as well as formations with a relatively low permeability in the direction of the fractures. In order to maximize the production and benefit of the fracturing process, an effective isolation is necessitated between the
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Coiled tubing unit consists of steel tubing and reel, injector head, control cabin, and power pack. The cost of the trailer, and the entire unit ranges from $1.2 to $ 2.5 million. The breakdown of the coiled tubing unit cost is shown in Table 1. In addition, coiled tubing system includes other equipment such as double pumper, double pumper tractor, nitrogen unit, crane, hoses, pump iron, two wet-kit tractors, and coiled tubing pipe, which bring the total cost of the coil tubing system to $4.5- 5 million for 2-in tubing spread, and $6.5- 7 million for 23/8-in tubing spread. Moreover, Coiled Tubing assembly requires a downhole motor which costs $300- $ 527.28 per day depending on the outer diameter of the motor

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