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100 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
The study of the functions of an organism and its parts
*Gross Anatomy
The study of the macroscopic structures of an organism
*Microscopic Anatomy
The study of the microscopic structures of an organism
The study of tissues
The study of the structures of the body
Surface Anatomy
Anatomy by 'feeling' the body
Regional Anatomy
Anatomy of the various parts of the body
Systematic Anatomy
Anatomy by organ systems
A group of tissues specialized for a particular function
A group of cells specialized for a particular function
A state of equilibrium in the body with respect to its functions, chemical levels, and tissues
Something in the environment that causes one or more variables to move to far from there set point
Chemicals which control the body's chemistry
A structure in the body that can change the value of a variable
Something which montors the value of your body's variables
Control Center
A thing which establishes the appropriate range of the variable
A type of hormone
List the eleven organ systems of the human body
Integumentary System, Skeletal System, Muscle System, Nervous System, Endocrine System, Circulatory System, Lymphatic System, Digestive System, Respiratory System, Urinary System, and Reproductive System
List the four basic types of tissue
Nervous Tissue, Muscular Tissue, Connective Tissue, and Epithelial Tissue
List the seven levels of organization in the human body
Organ Systems, Organs, Tissues, Cells, Eukaryotic Cells, Organelles, Molecules
Plasma membrane
The 'wall' that forms the boundry of the cell
Contains genetic material and it is the control center of the cell
Nuclear envelope
The 'wrapping' of the nucleus
Basically, DNA during interphase
Basically, DNA during reproduction
The fluid part of the cell
The place where proteins are synthesized
Free Ribosomes
Ribosomes by themselves
Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER)
An organelle composed of both rough and smooth ER
Smooth ER
This organelle performs intracellular transport and produces lipids and carbohydrates
Rough ER
This organelle performs intracellular transport and protein synthesis
Golgi Apparatuses
These organelles take chemicals and package them for many different purposes
Secratory Vesicle
A sack containing a chemical from the Golgi Apparatus
This organelle breaks down lipids, proteins, polysaccharides, and nucleic acids
The major site of ATP synthesis in the cell
Mitochondrial DNA
DNA in the mitochondrion which codes for the production of certain proteins necessary for the mitochondrion to do its job
Tiny 'hairs' on the cell
Large molecules formed by the joining of amino acids
Proteins that act as catalysts
Proteins that fight infections
The process by which a DNA molecule unwinds, exposing its nucleotides, and an mRNA molecule produces a negative of it
A sequence of three nucleotides on an mRNA
One of the following molecules: adenine, cytosine, guanine, and thymine. (Also Uracil?)
The process by which proteins are formed in the ribosome according to the negative in the mRNA molecule
A three-nucleotide sequence on a tRNA molecule
DNA does not have which 'nucleotide?'
RNA does not have which nucleotide?
Adenine links with...
Uracil or thymine
Guanine links with...
Cytosine links with...
Uracil links with...
Thymine links with...
List the seven parts of DNA
Adenine, guanine, cytosine, thymine, carbon, oxygen, and phosphorus
How do the nucleotides link together?
Via hydrogen bonds
What do carbon, oxygen, and phosphorus form in DNA?
Phosphate groups and Deoxyribose
What does tRNA stand for?
Transfer RNA
What does mRNA stand for?
Messenger RNA
How are amino acids linked up to form a protein?
By a peptide bond
What does RNA stand for?
Ribonucleic Acid
What does DNA stand for?
Deoxyribonucleic Acid
What shape does DNA have that RNA does not have?
A double helix
What are some similarities between DNA and RNA?
1. Both are made up of nucleotides
2. The nucleotides join together in long strands
3. They both have adenine, guanine, and cytosine
Describe transcription
The DNA first 'unwinds.' After that, the RNA forms a negative of the DNA by making the nucleotides link together. When transcription is over, the mRNA leaves the nucleus and goes to the ribosome in preparation for translation
Describe translation
First, the tRNA molecule has amino acids by it. This is because it has a 'hook.' The hook is a three-nucleotide sequence which is attracted to a specific amino acid. The three-nucleotide sequence is called an anticodon. When the mRNA enters the ribosome, the anticodons are attracted to three-nucleotide sequences on the mRNA, called codons. Of course, these sequences are taken right from the DNA. THe anticodons come near the codons, pulling along the amino acids. When they are right next to each other, the amino acids from the anticodons join up by a peptide bond.
The duplication of a cell's chromosomes to allow daughter cells to recieve the exact genetic makeup of the parent cell
The time during which the centrioles duplicate, form a spindle of microtubules, and move towards opposite ends; also, the DNA forms chromosomes and heads towards the center line of the cell
The time during which the duplicate and original chromosomes are separated and pulled to opposite ends
The time during which the spindle attaches to the chromosomes
The time during which the plasma membrance constricts
The time during which the cell is doing normal things, not reproducing
Equatorial Plane
An imaginary line which runs down the center of the cell
Phospholipid Bilayer
The major component of the plasma memebrane; it is composed of two layers of phospholipids
A fat molecule with one fatty acid replaced by a phosphate group
Which side of the phospholipid is hydrophobic?
The tail
Which side of the phospholipid is hydrophilic?
The head
Channel Proteins
Proteins that have a little 'channel' to let things in and out
Proteins that have a carbohydrate chain attached to them; these act as cell markers
Receptor Proteins
Proteins that take messages from other cells
The molecules that give the membrane the right degree of firmness
Fluid Mosaic Model
The description of the plasma membrane
*Selective Permeability
The ability to let certain materials in or out while restricting others
What type of molecule can most easily pass through the plasma memebrane?
Small, fatty molecules
What three main things affect permeability?
Polarity, size, and charge
What three conditions limit the proteins which pass through the carriers?
Specificity, Competition, and Saturation
Proteins that allow certains molecules in to the cell through mediated transport
Mediated Transport
The process by which a molecule enters a carrier protein on one side of the plasma membrane and leaves on the other
The condition which states that a molecule must be the right shape to enter a carrier
The condition which states that the type of molecule with the most 'members' will have the best chance of entering the plasma membrane.
A carrier is saturated when it cannot move molecules any faster than it already is moving them
The movement of ions or molecules through an area of high concentration to an area of low concentration
Facilitated diffusion
Diffusion that occurs in mediated transport
Adenosine Triphosphate
Adenosine Diphosphate
The process by which large molecules are taken into the cell
The process by which the plasma membrane folds into a pocket with the molecule inside and pinches off
The process by which the cell engulfs what it is trying to take in
Transportation of material from inside the cell to outside the cell
List the 4 paths which an ion or molecule can take, which does not necessarily require ATPs, to enter the cell
Dissolve through phospholipid, Channel proteins, charged channel proteins, carrier proteins
List the 4 ways or sub-ways which an ion or molecule can take to enter the cell and which necessarily requires ATPs
Endocytosis, Exocytosis, Phagocytosis, Pinocytosis