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104 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What is the function of blood?
Transport medium
What two types of tissue is blood?
regulatory and protective tissue
* Viscosity
The resistance to flow and alteration of shape due to cohesion
How much more viscous is blood than water?
Five times
Which is denser, blood or water?
What is the pH range of blood?
7.35 - 7.45
How much blood does a normal adult have?
About five liters
The fluid portion of the blood, which is mostly water
*Formed elements of blood
The cells and cell parts of blood produced by the bone marrow
what are the three basic types of protein in blood?
Albumin, globulins, and fibrinogen
the protein in plasma that regulates the movement of water between tissues and blood
Proteins in plasma which are responsible for fighting off infections
Red blood cells which carry the oxygen in blood
White blood cells which perform various defensive functions in blood
Cell fragments in blood which help prevent blood loss
What are the two things that compose blood?
Plasma and formed elements
Most of plasma is composed of…
Most of the formed elements of blood are composed of…
the protein/iron complex in erythrocytes which carries oxygen
How many globins are ina hemoglobin?
When a hemoglobin is fully 'loaded' with oxygen, what are its different parts?
hemes, globins, iron atoms, and oxygen
the result of a lack of sifficient oxygen carrying capacity by the blood, caused by either a lack of red blood cells or a lack of hemoglobin
a blood test which finds out if someone is anemic
Amoeboid movement
movement by pushing out an extension (pseudopod) and then flowing into it
Passage of any formed element of blood through the blood vessel and into the tissue spaces
Attraction of cells to chemical stimuli
What are the two divisions of leucocytes?
Granulocytes and Agranulocytes
Leukocytes that have vesicles filled with a substance that stains easily
Leukocytes that have vesicles that are relatively small and not easily stained
What are the three types of Granulocytes?
Neutrophil, basophil, and eosinophil
What are the two types of agranulocytes?
Lymphocyte and monocyte
The most common type of leucocyte, they fight infections by phagocytosis. They can devour about 10 bacteria before they die
The rarest type of leucocyte, they release histamine and heparin in an allergic reaction
Leucocytes that increase in number during allergic reactions, decreasing inflammation, and increase during parasitic infections
Leucocytes that produce antibodies
Leucocytes that are very large and very uncommon; they destroy invading organisms and foreign material through phagocytosis, being able to devour about 100 bacteriae before they die
Monocytes that reside in the tissue
Stem cells
cells which produce any type of blood cells and which are located in the bone marrow
The process by which the body stops blood loss
a scissor-like instrument whose blades do not cut but rather pinch together
What are the three states of hemostasis?
The vasoconstrictive, the platelet plug, and the coagulation stages
Vasoconstrictive stage
One of the stages in hemostasis in which the blood vessel constricts
Platelet plug stage
One of the stages in hemostasis in which the blood platelets swell, get sticky, and stick to both the blood vessel and to each other
Coagulation stage
one of the stages in hemostasis in which, through many chemical reactions, damage to tissue or blood vessels ultimately produces fibrin, which forms a 'net'
the chemical released by blood platelets which stimulates several chemical processes that cause the platelets to stick together
a platelet plug
coronary thrombosis
what is commonly called a 'heart attack.'
a clot which forms in the body but then breaks loose, traveling through the bloodstream until it bocks some other vessel. This can be deadly
In sum, what are the three steps of the coagulation process?
1) Tissue or blood vessel damage produces prothrombinase. 2) Prothrombinase converts prothrombin into thrombin. 3) Thrombin converts fibrinogen into fibrin
When you go through these flashcards, you should remember…
…to review the entire blood clotting process (especially figure 11.7)
things which prevent certain blood factors from being activated, thus stopping the clotting cascade.
A protein or carbohydrate that, when introduced in the blood, triggers the production of an antibody
Universal donor type
Type O blood
Rh antigen
an antigen which exists on the surface of the erythrocytes and makes one's blood type either positive or negative
Closed circulatory system
the blood system which keeps the blood enclosed by traveling through blood vessels
Blood vessels that carry blood away from the heart
Tiny, thin-walled vessels that allow the exchange of gases and nutrients between the blood and cells
Blood vessels that carry blood back to the heart
*Pulmonary circulation
Circulation of the blood over the air sacs of the lungs
*Systemic circulation
Circulation of the blood through the other tissues of the body
What color is deoxygenated blood?
Dark red
What color is oxygenated blood?
bright red
What are the four chambers of the heart?
the left and right atrium and the left and right ventricle
Which side receives deoxygenated blood, the right or left side of the heart?
the right side
flaplike extensions on the right and left atria
Superior vena cava
a large vein which brings blood from the upper body tissues to the heart
Inferior vena cava
a large vein which brings blood from the lower body tissues to the heart
Pulmonary veins
the four veins which bring blood from the lungs to the heart
Pulmonary trunk
the artery which carries blood away from the heart to the lungs
the artery which carries blood away from the heart to the other body tissues
right atrioventricular canal
the canal which leads to the right ventricle from the right atrium
right atrioventricular valve
the valve which helps regulate the flow of blood through the right atrioventricular canal
tricuspid valve
another name for the right atrioventricular valve
papillary muscles
the muscles which keep the atrioventricular valves from 'blowing out' into the atriums
chordae tendineae
the 'heart strings' which connect the papillary muscles to the atrioventricular canal
left atrioventricular valve
the valve which helps regulate the flow of blood through the left atrioventricular canal
biscuspid valve
another name for the left atrioventricular canal
mitral valve
another name for the left atrioventricular canal
left atrioventricular canal
the canal which leads to the left ventricle from the left atrium
interventricular septum
The muscular wall which separates the left and right ventricles
semilunar valves
valves which separate the ventricles from the aorta and the pulmonary trunk
intercalated disks
discks which conduct action potentials from one cell to another
how is the cardiac muscle stimulated?
it is self-stimulatory
nodal tissue
bundles of cardiac muscle tissue which acts as both muscle tissue and nerve tissue
sinoatrial node
the clump of nodal tissue which is located in the upper portion of the right atrium
SA node
the sinoatrial node
Atrioventricular node
the clump of nodal tissue which is located near the tricuspid valve
AV node
the atrioventricular node
the sinoatrial node, as it initiates the action potentials which cause the heart to beat
atrioventricular bundles
bundles of nodal tissue that travels through the interventricular septum and then branch and travel to each ventricle
Purkinje fibers
fibers which send action potentials to the cells in the ventricles and which are part of the atrioventricular bundles
passive ventricular filling
the process by which blood enters the ventricles before the atriua pump
*Systolic phase
The phase of the cardiac cycle in which the ventricles contract
*Diastolic phase
the phase of the cardiac cycle in which the ventricles relax
*cardiac cycle
one complete round of systole and diastole
Systolic pressure
the maximum pressure in the aorta, when the ventricles contract (systolic phase)
Diastolic pressure
the minimum pressure in the aorta, right before the ventricular contraction (diastolic phase)
what three tunics compose the veins and arteries?
the tunica intima, the tunica media, and the tunica adventitia
Describe the tunica intima
a layer of simple squamous epethelial tissue called the endothelium resting on basement membrane of connective tissue. The basement membrane is connected to a thicker layer of connective tissue called the lamina propria. This tunic is wrapped in a layer of elastic fibers called the internal elastic membrane
which tunic contains the smooth muscles that wrape around the vessel?
the tunica media
vasa vasorum
the set of blood vessels that supply the blood vessel walls with oxygen and nutrients
External elastic membrane
an outer covering of elastic fibers around the tunica media
The smallest arteries that still have three tunics
Small veins that do not have three tunics but instead have only an endothelium, a basement membrane, and a few smooth muscle cells