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95 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
The process of chewing
The breakdown of food molecules into their individual components
List the organs of the alimentary canal
mouth, phrynx, esophagus, stomch, small instetine, large intestine, and anus (tongue and teeth could also be included)
List the accessory organs
salivary glands, liver, pancreas, and gall bladder (tongue and teeth could also be included)
Sharp teeth used to cut food
Canine teeth
teeth used to tear food
teeth used to crush and grind food
teeth used to crush and grind food
What are the five components of saliva?
water (99%), mucus, amylase, lysozyme, and antibodies
a digestive enxyme that helps to break down startch into maltose, which is a disaccharide
List the three major salivary glands (which come in pairs) in the mouth
parotid, sublingual, and submandibular salivary glands
Parotid salivary glands
salivary glands which release saliva above the tongue
Sublingual salivary glands
salivary glands which release saliva below the tongue
Submandibular salivary glands
salivary glands which release saliva below the tongue
A viral infection of the parotid salivary glands
The act of swallowing
a soft lump of food about to be swallowed
Explain what happens when someone swallows
1) The soft palate rises to close off the nasal cavity. 2) The larynx rises and the epiglottis lowers to keep food from traveling down the treachea
List the three stages of deglutition
Voluntary oral stage, pharyngeal stage, and esophageal stage
Voluntary oral stage
The stage in which the bolus is pushed towards the posterior part of the mouth by the tongue
Pharyngeal stage
The stage when the soft palate lifts up and blocks the nasal cavity, the larynx lifts up to meet the reachea, the ventricular folds form a tight seal, and the pharyngeal muscles constrict to push the bolus down.
esophageal stage
The stage in which peristalsis happens
The process of contraction and relaxation of circular smooth muscles which pushes food through the alimentary canal
Peristaltic waves
waves of contractions of smooth muscles which is part of peristalsis
A skeletal muscle that helps control breathing
What are the four main regions of the stomach?
The cardiac region, the fundus, the body, and the pylorus
Pyloric sphincter
What governs the flow of materials from the stomach to the small intestine
Also called the visceral peritoneum, it is made of a layer of connective tissue and a layer of simple squamous epithelium, and it allows the stomach to move with little friction as it churns. It is the outermost layer of the stomach
What are the three layers of the muscularis?
The longitudinal muscularis, the circular muscularis, and the oblique muscularis
Submucosa and mucosa
the layers of the stomach which are on the inside of the stomach
The folds in the mucosa of the stomach
List the layers of the stomach
(From outside to inside): Serosa, Longitudinal muscularis, circular muscularis, oblique muscularis, submucosa, mucosa
Gastric pits
The openings for the gastric glands which secrete gastric juice
*Gastric juice
The acidic secretion of the stomach
an enzyme which breaks proteins down into smaller chains of amino acids called peptides
A chemical which, when mixed with HCl and other pepsin molecules, can be converted into pepsin
Intrinsic factor
A chemical which binds to vitamin B12 so that the vitamin can be absorbed in the small intestine
A thin layer of loose connective tissue that binds an organ to surrounding tissues or organs
Mixing waves
The stomach produces mixing waves about every 20 seconds when the stomach is full to mix the food with gastric juices to produce chyme
Food is vomited when the lining of the alimentary canal becomes too iritated
A hormone secreted by the stomach which has several effects including to make the pyloric sphyncter contract more strongly
What are the three main functions of the small intestine?
Mix and propel chyme, digest the food, and absorb the nutrients
What are the three sections of the small intestine?
(In order, from beginning to end of small intestine): duodenum, jejunum, and ileum
Circular folds
Rings of mucosa in the small intestines
Intestinal villi
Little projections on the circular folds
tiny extentions of the cell membrane of the cells on the intestinal villi
The hole in the center of a tube
Mucous goblet cells
They make up exocrine glands which secrete mucus which protects the tissue of the intestine from the acidic chyme as well as the digestive enzymes which break down the proteins, facts, and carbohydrates
Duodenal glands
Glands which secrete an alkaline mucus which neutralizes the acidity of the chyme entering the small intestine
Intestinal glands
Glands which secrete intestinal juice
Cholecystokinin, a hormone secreted by the endocrine glands of the small intestines, and which causes the gall bladder to contract
Lymph vessels which carry fatty acids back into the bloodstream by making them a part of the lymph (they are in the small intestine)
An enzyme which digests maltose, breaking it up into two glucose molecules
An enzyme which digests sucrose, which is table sugar
The enzyme which digests lactose, which is milk sugar
An enzyme which breaks down peptides
An enzyme which activates trypsinogen into trypsin
What are the five major digestive enzymes of intestinal juice?
maltase, sucrase, lactase, peptidase, and enterokinase
an enzyme which digests proteins
What are the three parts of the large intestine?
The cecum, the colon, and the rectum
Ileocecal sphincter
a sphincter which regulates the amount of chyme leaving the small intestine
Ascending colon
The protion of the colon in which chyme travles upwards
Transverse colon
The portion of the colon in which chyme travels from the right to the left side of the body
Descending colon
The portion of the colon in which chyme travels downwards to the rectum
the process by which wastes are eliminated from the large intestines
Mass movements
strong, irregular peristaltic contractions which move chyme through the transverse and descending colons
What is produced by the liver and aids the digestion of fats
What are the four lobes of the liver?
The left, right, caudate, and quadrate
Hepatic artery
the artery which brings blood to the liver
Hepatic portal vein
The vein which takes blood into the liver
What is the fuction of the hepatic portal vein?
to bring in deoxygenated blood from the small intestine so the liver can process the nutrients in the blood.
What is the tissue of the liver divided into? (answer is NOT lobes)
Portal triad
A portal triad is in each corner of a lobule of the liver. It has two blood vessels, one from the hepatic portal vain, and one from the hepatic artery. It also contains a bile duct
What is the function of the bile duct in the portal triad of the liver?
To collect bile and send it to the common hepatic duct.
the functional cells of the liver
Hepatic cords
thin cords of hepatocytes
Hepatic sinusoids
blood vessels which separate the hepatic cords
Bile canalicule
Vessels which transport bile into the hepatic ducts in the portal triad
The process by which large drops of lipids are separated into smaller drops
What does the liver store?
extra blood glucose, which is converted into glycogen
What is Nutrient interconversion?
The process by which the liver converts certain types of nutrients into other types of nutrients
What is the synthesis function of the liver?
the function by which the liver makes many blood coagulation factors
What is the phagocytosis function of the liver?
The function by which the liver takes out worn-out erythrocytes, white blood cells, bacteria, and other debris
What does it mean that the liver detoxifies the blood?
It removes many of the toxic substances from blood and integrates them into the bile
Cystic duct
The duct which carries bile into the gall bladder
Common bile duct
The duct which carries bile from the gall bladder into the small intestine
Mostly cholesterol, they are produced in the gall bladder and can plug up a duct
Pancreatic duct
The duct which secretes pancreatic juice into the duodenum of the small intestine
What six things in particular are in pancreatic juice?
Trypsinogen, Chymotrypsinogen, procarbowypeptidase, amylase, lipase, and mucleases
What is the function of amylase in pancreatic juice?
It breaks down polysaccharides
What is the function of lipase in pancreatic juice?
It breaks down facts into fatty acids
What is the function of nucleases in pancreatic juice?
It accomplishes the breakdown of nucleic acids
The nutrients the body needs in large amounts: carbohydrates, fats, and proteins
The nutrients the body needs in small amounts, such as vitamins and minerals
Complex carbohydrates
Large polysaccharides