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60 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
*Lymph tissue
Groups of lymphocytes and other cells which support the lymphocytes
*Lymph nodes
Encapsulation masses of lymph tissue found along lymph vessels
Watery liquid formed from interstitial fluid and found in lymph vessels
Lymph capillaries
dead end' capillaries of the lymphatic system which collect interstitial fluid from body tissue
What are the three basic functions of the lymph system?
fluid balance, fat absorption, and immunological defense
How is lymph able to flow through the lymphatic system?
1) the contraction of skeletal muscles squeezes the lymph vessels, moving the lymph. 2) There are smooth muscles around the larger lymph vessels which squeeze the vessel. 3) pressure changes from breathing can also move lymph
A buildup of excess fluid in the tissues, which can lead to swelling
about what percentage of the interstitial fluid in tissue will become lymph?
Subclavian veins
the subclavian veins are located in the shoulders. When lymph has gone through the lymphatic system, it is emptied into the circulatory system by means of the subclavian veins
A tropical disease where the legs swell up to enormous size due to tropical parasites which block the flow of lymph
specialized lymph vessels in the small intestine
lymph which has large amounts of fat in it, thus turning it from clear to milky white
*Immunological defense
The process by which the body protects itself from pathogenic invaders such as bacteria, fungi, parasites, and foreign substances
*Diffuse lymphatic tissue
Concentrations of lymphatic tissue with no clear boundaries
*Lymph nodules
Lymphatic tissue arranged into compact, somewhat spherical structures
groups of lymph nodules under the mucous membrane in the throat or on the back of the tongue. They form a protective ring around the throat, strategically located to protect the body from foreign invaders
the condition in which the tonsils become infected and often become inflamed and abnormally enlarged
the process by which the tonsils are removed from the body because of chronic tonsillitis
Peyer's patches
groups of lymphocytes in lymph nodules that are in the small intestine. They are typically found in the last third of the small intestines.
Explain the anatomy of a lymph node
Lymph nodes are surrounded by a capsule of dense connective tissue. Extensions of this capsule, called trabeculae, make up the 'skeleton' of the node. Reticular fibers extend from the trabeculae, forming a net of connective tissue throughout the lymph node. Typical lymph nodes have lymph nodules along their outer edges. These nodules contain germinal centers which can rapidly manufacture lymphocytes in the case of a foreign invasion. The lymph node is fed lymph through several afferent lymph vessels, which all reduce to one efferent lymph vessel which carries the lymph away from the lymph node
an organ of the lyphatic system which filters the blood of foreign invaders, filters the blood worn-out erythrocytes, and holds oxygen-rich blood in case of blood loss
Red pulp
tissue inside the spleen which is made up of twisted vains and reticular fibers which are full of blood cells which were in the capillaries of the spleen
White pulp
tissue inside the spleen which surrounds the arteries which enter the spleen. Foreign invaders in the blood passing through the white pulp will stimulate a rsponse from the diffuse lymphatic tissue or the lymph nodules
the process by which the spleen is removed from the body to stop internal bleeding because of a rupture due to an injury
thymus gland
the gland in both the endocrine and lymphatic systems. It is unknown what it does for sure, but it is responsible for thymic education of T-lymphocytes
List the six different foreign invaders discussed in this module
pathogenic bacteria, pathogenic fungi, parasites, viruses, cancers, and toxins
*Innate immunity
An immune response that is the same regardless of the pathogen or toxin encountered
*Acquired immunity
An immune response targeted at a specific pathogen or toxin
A series of 20 plasma proteins activated by foreign cells or antibodies to those cells. They (1) lyse bacteria, (2) promote phagocytosis, and (3) promote inflamation
Proteins secreted by cells infected with a virus. These proteins stimulate nearby cells to produce virus-fighting substances
explain the difference between complement and interferon concerning function
complement is antibacterial; interferon is antiviral
explain the difference between complement and interferon concerning place of production
complement is produced in the liver; interferon is produced by virus-defeated cells in the body
explain the difference between complement and interferon concerning time of production
complement is continually produced, in an inactive form. Interferon is only produced by a cell which has already been 'captured' by a virus
Natural killer cells
lymphocytes that attack tumor cells and virus-infected cells (these are cells of the body, not foreign cells)
How is inflammation produced?
by vasodilation in which the blood vessels dilate
Local inflammation
inflammation of one part of the body
systemic inflammation
inflammation of the whole body
Chemicals which promote fever by acting on the hypothalamus
*Humoral immunity
Immunity which comes from antibodies in blood plasma
*Cell-mediated immunity
Immunity which comes from the actions of T-lymphocytes
four polypeptide chains which are able to target an antigen
List the five ways an antibody can fight an antigen
1) bind directly to antigen. 2) Bind the antignes together in groups. 3) activate complement. 4) Stimulate phagocytosis. 5) Stimulate inflammation
specialized lymphocytes that produce antibodies
plasma B-cells
B-cells that release their antibodies into the plasma
memory B-cells
long-lived B-cells which do not release their antibodies the first time of an invasion but the second time
primary response
the response that is first produced by B-cells. It fights the infection and produces memory B-cells
secondary response
the response that is produced by memory B-cells in the case of a second infection
20 specific glycoproteins which exist on the cell membrane of every cell in your body
T-lymphocytes (also known as T-cells)
cells which originate in the bone marrow and mature in the thymus gland. They have antigen receptors but are not associated with antibodies. They fight diseases which are causedby pahtogens which invade cells, such as viruses and intracellular bacteria
effector T-cells
T-cells which attack infection
memory T-cells
T-cells which provide long-lasting immunity just like memory B-cells do
cytotoxic T-cells (also called killer T-cells_
Memory T-cells which recognize and destroy foreign cells by puncturing them
helper T-cells
Memory T-cells which stimulate the proliferation of B-cells and cytotoxic T-cells
Human immunodeficiency virus which destroyed helper T-cells
Delayed hypersensitivity T-cell
T-cells that respond to antigens by releasing chemicals which promote inflammation. They also promote phagocytosis by attracting macrophages through chemotaxis
Active natural immunity
the acquired immunity which comes from being exposed to a pathogen
Active artificial immunity
the acquired immunity which comes from a vaccine
Passive natural immunity
Immunity which is transferred from a mother to a baby
Passive artificial immunity
Immunity acquired by someone else who has been exposed to a pathogen and created antibodies. These antibodies are removed from that person and put in someone else
Immunity against one's self - the MHC of the body's cells cannot be recognized, so the cells are attacked by the body.