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223 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
According to Erikson's theory, a mother who is sympathetic and loving is fostering her baby's sense of
According to Erikson, a mother who _______ is likely to promote autonomy in toddlerhood.
waits patiently while her son puts on his socks and shoes
Which of the following is supported by research on anger?
The rise in anger among older infants is adaptive because new motor abilities enable them to defend themselves or overcome obstacles
_______ is/are common among babies of depressed mothers
A negative mood and attachment difficulties
As Melanie was learning to walk, each time she fell she would look for her mother's reaction. If her mother looked upset, she would cry; if her mother smiled, she would stand up and try again. Melanie was using
social referencing
The appearance of emotions such as embarrassment, pride, guilt, and envy is linked with the development of
Parents who rarely intervene when their infant is distressed
may hinder their infants; development of brain structures that buffer stress
In Thomas and Chess's research, ______ children are at high risk for anxious withdrawal and aggressive behavior in early and middle childhood.
Long-term prediction of temperament can best be achieved after age 2 because
Styles of responding are better established and the child's capacity for effortful control is more established.
Four-month-old Max is easily upset by new sights and sounds. According to research by Kagan, Max has an increased chance of
becoming a fearful, inhibited preschooler
According to the goodness-of-fit model, infants with difficult temperaments often
experience parenting that fits poorly with their dispositions
A famous experiment of rhesus monkeys reared with terrycloth and wire-mesh "surrogate mothers" provided evidence that
the development of emotional ties between infant and mother does not depend on hunger satisfaction
John Bowlby advocated which of the following explanations of human mother +/- infant attachment?
Infant behaviors such as smiling, babling, and crying are innate social signals that encourage mothers to protect and provide support for their infants
In the Strange Situation, Aimee repeatedly makes eye contact with her mother as she actively explores the new surroundings. When her mother leaves the room, Aimee cries and is not comforted by an unfamiliar adult. However, she is comfoted when her mother returns. Aimee is demonstrating characteristics of ______ attachment
In all societies studied, the most common attachment pattern is
Studies of institutionalized babies who had been given up by their mothers indicates that
the first attachment bond can develop as late as 4 to 6 years of age
Resistant infants tend to have mothers who are
Research on attachment and quality of caregiving suggests that
depressed mothers tend to promote a disorganized/disoriented attachment classification
Parents who exhibit objectivity and balance in discussing childhood experiences, regardless of whether they were positive or negative, tend to have infants who display a(n) ________ attachment.
Research on child care in infancy indicates that
more than one child-care arrangement increases the likelihood of attachment insecurity.
Two-year-old Isabella has a red dot on her nose. When she looks into a mirror, she tries to rub the dot off of her nose rather than off the mirror. This behavior indicates that she has developed
Which of the following is supported by research on brain lateralization and handedness?
A strong hand preference reflects the individual's dominant cerebral hemisphere.
Psychophysiological research demonstrates that
the cortex of left-handers is often less clearly specialized than that of right-handers
Research on infectious disease indicates that
most deaths from diarrhea can be prevented be administering nearly cost-free oral rehydration therapy
In industrialized nations, the rate of childhood diseases has declinded dramatically in the past 50 years, primarily as the result of
widespread immunization of infants and children.
Which of the following is supported by research on individual differences in motor skills?
Parents tend to foster sex-stereotypic physical activities in their children
Research on the development of make-believe play indicates that
preschoolers who spend more time in sociodramatic play are seen as more socially competent by their teachers
In one study, 2.5 year olds were unable to use a scale model of a room to find a toy hidden in the room that the model represented. This is because young preschoolers have difficulty with
dual representation
According to Piaget, young children's thinking often is illogical because they are not capable of
Three-year-old Gwen explains that her bicycle is sad because it is alone in the garage. Gwen is demonstrating
animistic thinking
In a conservation-of-liquid problem, young children do not realize that the water in the short, wide glass would attain its former height if it were poured back into the tall, thin glass. This characteristic of preoperational thought is known as
A wealth of recent research suggests that Piaget ________ preschoolers' cognitive capabilities
One major difference between Piaget's and Vygotsky's theories is that Vygotsky emphasized that
all higher cognitive processes develop out of social interaction
Recall is a more demanding task than recognition because it
involves remembering a stimulus that is not present
Athena's mother asked her, "What happened during your trip to the museum today at school?" Athena's response represents
autobiographical memory
Which of the following is supported by research on memory?
Preschoolers whose parents use an elaborative style to talk about the past produce more organized and detailed reports of events
Theory of mind research indicates that by age 3, children realize that
a person can think about something without seeing it or touching it
In a study that "flooded" child-care centers with high-quality children's books and provided training to caregivers, children showed
gains in informal reading and writing knowledge
Research using the Home Observation for Measurement of the Environment (HOME) indicates that
the home plays a major role in the different intellectual performances of low- and higher- SES children
Which of the following is supported by research on child care?
High-quality child care for low-income children predicts improvements in cognitive, social, and emotional development.
Two-year-old Calvin says, "My cup falled," when his cup fell off the table. The grammatical error in Calvin's sentence is known as an
By age 3.5, children
describe themselves in terms of typical attitudes and emotions
Studies of self-esteem demonstrate that preschoolers
usually rate their own ability as extremely high.
Which of the following is supported by research on understanding emotion?
Preschoolers with parents who talk about varied emotions and often acknowledge emotional reactions become better judges of others' emotions.
When 3-year-old Mayur spills paint on his shirt, his mom ssays, "Mayur, that's bad. I thought you were a good boy." Assuming that Mayur's mother repeatedly gives this sort of feedback, which of the following is MOST likely to be true?
Mayur is likely to experience self-conscious emotions intensely.
Maya is able to detect that her friend is sad, and understand that the sadness results from her friend's older sister leaving for college. Subsequently, Maya feels and responds emotionally to her friend's situation. Maya is exhibiting
Vinny and Marguerite are both building towers from the same large pile of blocks, but they do not talk to each other or direct each other's activities. They are engaged in _______ play.
How does peer sociability in collectivist cultures differ from that in individualistic cultures?
Children in collectivist cultures tend to engage in play that requires high levels of cooperation
Sarah, a 3-year-old, says that Song Li is her best friend. From this you can best draw the conclusion that these two girls
share toys and enjoy playing together
In Freud's theory, children
act morally to avoid punitive feelings of guild from their superego
Which of the following is supported by research on punishment?
Children who receive harsh punishment often avoid interacting with the punishing adult.
Time out as a disciplinary technique
is useful when a child is out of control.
Research shows that _______ aggression declines during the preschool years, whereas _______ aggression increases over early and middle childhood.
instrumental; hostile
Which of the following statements is supported by research on aggression?
Boys are more likely than girls to be targets of harsh, inconsistent discipline.
Research on television violence indicates that viewing violent TV
impacts both aggressive and nonaggressive children to varying degrees
Research on gender typing demonstrates that
preschool teachers give girls more encouragement than boys to participate in adult-structured activities.
The authoritative child-rearing style is linked to
high self-esteem, moral maturity, and favorable school performance.
_______ parents often engage in __________.
Authoritarian; psychological control
Charlie's parents are emotionally detached, depressed, and overwhelmed by the stresses of life. Charlie's parents are likely to be classified as having a(n) __________ child-rearing style.
Which of the following is supported by research on child abuse?
Infants and young preschoolers are at the greatest risk for neglect
One strategy that has been quite effective in preventing child abuse is to
provide home-visitation programs starting in pregnancy.
In middle childhood, children grow an average of ____ in height and _____ in weight each year
2 to 3 inches; 5 pounds
The nighttime "growing pains" of middle childhood are the result of
muscles adapting to an enlarging skeleton.
Parents of obese children tend to
reward their children's good behavior with food.
_______ is/are the most frequent cause of school absence and childhood hospitalization.
The main reason that boys outperform girls in sports in middle childhood is that
parents hold higher athletic expectations for boys than for girls.
Many experts argue that physical education programs in schools should put less emphasis on _____ and more emphasis on ____.
Competitive sports; informal games and individual exercise
During a conservation-of-mass problem, Tom can mentally reverse the steps of the task in which the clay ball was smashed. This example demonstrates that Tom is capable of
According to Piaget, children who pass class inclusion tasks
can focus on relations between a general and two specific categories at the same time.
Case's neo-Piagetian theory attributes movement from preoperational to operational thought to
an increase in information-processing speed.
During middle childhood, attention develops by becoming more
selective, adaptable, and planful
Which of the following is supported by research on memory strategies?
Once children discover elaboration, its use becomes increasingly common.
Research on attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) indicates that
children with ADHD score lower than other children in IQ.
In treating ADHD, stimulant medication
reduces symptoms in 70% of children, probably by increasing frontal lobe activity.
Research on reading proficiency in middle childhood shows that improvements in _____ release space in working memory for higher-level activities.
visual scanning and discrimination
The Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children
was the first test to be standardized on children representing the total population of the United States.
Sternberg's triarchic theory helps explain why
out-of-school, practical forms of intelligence are vital for life success.
According to Gardner's theory of intelligence
cultural values and learning opportunities affect the extent to which the child's intellectual strengths are realized.
Which of the following is believed to contribute to IQ test bias against ethnic minority groups?
Stereotype threat undermines test taking among minority children who are aware of ethnic stereotypes
Research on the mainstreaming of children with learning disabilities indicates that
mainstreamed children are often rejected by regular-classroom peers.
Raul is a curious, inquisitive fifth grader, confident in his abilities to read difficult books and write interesting stories. However, his teacher is overly critical of his work and behavior, and constantly gives him negative feedback.. According to Erikson, Raul is at risk for developing a sense of
Research on child-rearing practices indicates that children often suffer from low self-esteem when parents
too often help or make decisions for their youngster
Mastery-oriented children are more likely to attribute their successes to _____ and their failures to ______.
ability; lack of effort
Learned-helpless children tend to have parents who
set unusually high standards yet believe that their children are not very capable
Kiela's best friend is angry because Kiela played with someone else during recess. Kiela talks to her friend and explains that, although she likes playing together, sometimes she wants to do something different. She asks her friend to understand her feelings and not be upset. Kiela is using
problem-centered coping
At her birthday party, Juanita gives Lara, who brought only a small present because her family doesn't have much money, a big piece of cake. According to Damon's theory, Juanita thinks of fairness in terms of
Research on peer groups during middle childhood shows that
children ousted from their peer group often turn to low-status peers for group belonging
Eight-year-olds Mariana and Anna Claire are best friends. When asked, they will probably say that _____ is the most important part of their friendship
Research on peer victimization shows that
developing a school code against bullying can reduce peer victimization
Research has shown that parents promote gender stereotypes by
praising girls less than boys for accomplishment and knowledge
During the years from 3rd grade to 6th grade, boys' identification with the masculine gender role _______ and girl's identification with the feminine gender role ______.
strengthens; declines
Mr. and Mrs. Vossoughi know that parenting will become easier during their daughter's middle childhood years if they have established an authoritative parenting style early on. What developing child characteristic(s) influences this more positive relationship in authoritative situations?
greater capacity for logical thinking and increased respect for parents' knowledge
Mr. and Mrs. Pribesh have begun to supervise their son's activities less. While they oversee his general schedule, they now allow him to make his own moment-by-moment decisions. The Primeshes are exercising
Compared to children with siblings research demonstrates that only children
do better in school
______ has the highest divorce rate in the world
The United States
According to research on blended families, to which of these family structures do children MOST easily adjust?
a boy in a mother-stepfather family
Beginning in middle childhood, a common fear is
being robbed or hurt.
Mr. and Mrs. Marlette want to prevent some of the childhood fears that their son may experience. One way they can intervene with the most common source of childhood fears is to
limit the amount of TV that their son watches.
Research on child sexual abuse indicates that
the abuser is most often a parent or someone the parent knows well.
Getting a fatal disease, being too ill to maintain independence, and losing mental capacities are all
prominent concerns of middle aged adults
The first sign of hearing loss in middle age is typically
a sharp hearing loss at high frequencies
The aging process causes fat in the ______ to diminish, resulting in skin that becomes more wrinkled and loose
One area where fat DECREASES during middle adulthood is
beneath the skin of the arms and legs
Mrs. Chang wants to avoid the characteristic weight gain of middle adulthood. She should
maintain a low-fat diet, with a gradual reduction in caloric intake
What type of exercise should Mrs. Chang consider during middle adulthood to offset excess weight and muscle loss?
weight-bearing exercise that includes resistance training.
Mr. and Mrs. Riediger are undergoing reproductive transitions. Mrs. Riediger is no longer able to have children, while Mr. Riediger's fertility has diminished. They are BOTH undergoing
the climacteric
Marlene, who had a hysterectomy, is undergoing menopause. Her doctor will probably recommend
estrogen replacement therapy (ERT)
Many of Dr. Kittenbrink's patients experiencing menopause want to undergo hormone therapy for relief from menopausal symptoms. Because she is a responsible physician, Dr. Kittenbrink is likely to
prescribe it to low-risk patients for no longer than five years.
In addition to midlife physical changes, ________ can be caused by disorders of the nervous, circulatory, and endocrine systems; anxiety and depression; and pelvic injury.
male impotence
Cross-cultural research reveals that women are LESS likely to experience menopause as difficult, unpleasant, or uncomfortable if it
leads to improved social status
The best predictor for how much sex a couple has in middle age is
how happily married they are
As Mr. and Mrs. Golloher reach midlife, they are likely to experience which of the following with regards to their sexual activity?
Both frequency of activity and intesity of response will decline, but spontaneity will increase.
An illness that occurs when a cell's normal genetic programming is disrupted, causing uncontrolled growth and crowding out of normal cells, is called
Mrs. Ng has just had an operation to remove a cancerous lump in her breast. The medical community considers her to be
cured of cancer if she remains free of the disease for five years.
Mr. Kher has an irregular heartbeat. This condition causes him to feel faint, and is dangerous because it can allow clots to form in the heart's chambers. Mr. Kher has
Mrs. Kishel's bones have become more porous over the years, reducing her bone density levels and putting her at risk for fractures. Mrs. Kishel has which condition?
The best way for people with Type A behavior pattern to reduce their risk of heart attack is to
develop more effective ways of handling stress.
Which of the following is a characteristic of an effective coping strategy for dealing with stress?
a mixture of problem- and emotion-centered techniques
An important psychological factor that helps people begin and maintain a regular exercise program is
a sense of self-efficacy
An individual with a high level of hardiness is likely to use which type of coping strategy?
a problem-centered coping strategy
Past research results showed a pattern of intelligence declines in middle and late adulthood. Which of the following statements explains this pattern?
Cohort effects, where younger generations benefitted from improved health and education, created the appearance of age related intelligence declines.
Mai Song prefers meeting with clients face-to-face, rather than by phone or written correspondence. Although her knowledge and experience in the field make her well-respected, it is her ability to successfully maneuver social situations and her interactions with clients that have made her successful. Mai Song has developed _______ intelligence.
The ability to analyze information quickly and detect patterns in new information is called ______ intelligence.
You must choose which of three candidates to hire for a job; a young adult, a middle-aged adult, and an older adult. They all have similar training, experience, and pay expectations. Research suggests that which of these will be the most effective employee?
The middle-aged adult.
Compared to younger individuals, when solving an everyday problem, middle-aged adults will
select better strategies
Why are parents who are flexible, abstract thinkers likely to have children with similar traits?
They tend to value self-direction for themselves and their children and are likely to pass their cognitive preferences on.
Which of the following best describes the term generativity?
everything generated that can outlive the self and ensure society's continuity and improvement
Which of the following is a product of generativity?
volunteer work with Habitat for Humanity
Although Inez has a stable marriage, three successful grown children, and a good job, she is very self-centered and self-indulgent. She has little involvement with her children or their families, other than to remind them what gifts she wants for her birthday or Mother's Day. She "puts in her hours" at work, but is indifferent to how she could improve her productivity or that of her office. Erikson would say that Inez
has developed a strong sense of stagnation
Arlen is highly generative. As a result, he is likely to
be high in self-acceptance.
In Levinson's theory of adult development, the period when people evaluate how successful they have been in meeting their early goals and focus on how best to modify their lives to have a meaningful future is called the
midlife transition
Fifty-year-old Brielle really likes the look of short skirts and low-slung pants, but has decided that her wardrobe needs to reflect a more mature style. She has also decided that her crow's feet reflect years of laughter and should be considered a sign of a happy life, rather than a sign of aging. On the other hand, she has decided to take up rollerblading as a way to spend time with her teenage son. According to Levinson, Brielle is engaged in which developmental task?
young old
Mr. and Mrs. Li's adult children have noticed gradual changes in their parent's personalities over the last decade. Mr. Li has become more empathetic and caring; Mrs. Li has become more autonomous and assertive. According to Levinson, the Lis are engaged in which developmental task?
masculinity femininity
In societies around the world, older people become
a stabilizing force that holds in check the rapid change sparked by younger adults
Most people in midlife
make changes that are best described as "turning points" rather than drastic alterations of their lives.
As Oksana reaches middle adulthood, she acknowledges and accepts both her good and bad traits. She feels positively about herself and her life. Oksana is displaying
Maura, age 56, engages in a daily exercise regimen. As a result, she is likely to
have reduced feelings of vulnerability to illness that typically increase with age.
Gayle is a 46-year-old married doctor who exercises daily. Which factor is the most powerful predictor of Gayle's mental health in midlife?
being married
Research showing that gender identity becomes more androgynous in midlife
exists both in Western industrialized nations and in village societies
An alternative to parental imperative theory suggests that men become more androgynous in midlife because
of a need to enrich a marital relationship after children have departed.
Marjorie worries constantly about the trouble her children might get into. She complains that they go out of their way to make her life miserable and that she doesn't know how to deal with her life. Marjories is at one extreme of which of these "big five" personality traits?
Because they have ties to older and younger generations in their families and have well-established friendships, people in midlife tend to ________ than at any other period of their lives.
have a large number of close relationships
Midlifers are able to adapt more easily to ______ than younger people, resulting in less decline in psychological well-being when it does occur.
The ________ refers to a trend in which women who support themselves or their families have become that majority of the adult poverty population.
feminization of poverty
Research on early child-rearing styles and parents' relations with adult children shows that
warm and supportive parents will have closer relationships with their grown children
Which of the following is more likely to promote a close bond between an older grandchild and grandparent?
the extent to which the grandchild believes the grandparent values contact.
Middle-aged adults who balance the needs of aging parents and financially dependent children are called
the sandwich generation
One of the reasons that caring for chronically ill parent is different, and often more stressful, than caring for a young child is that
the need for parental care arises suddenly with little time for preparation.
Role overload, high job absenteeism, exhaustion, inability to concentrate, and high rates of depression are typical of
parental caregivers
Compared to adult men, adult women report
a greater number of close friends
Which of these factors is most likely to contribute to the glass ceiling that prevents many women and ethnic minorities from reaching the top levels of their profession?
There aren't many women and minority mentors and role models.
The term psychologists use for a person's actual competence and performance in dealing with life's challenges is ______ age.
Arthur wonders how many years he can expect to live, based upon the fact that he was born in 1927. In other words, he wants to find out the ______ for people born in 1972.
Average life expectancy
Although Pearl's mother lived to be 95, the last 10 years of her life were spent in declining health, confined first to a wheelchair and then to a hospital bed. Pearl wonders how many years of vigorous, healthy life she'll have in comparison to her mother. Pearl wants to find out the average _______ for someone her age.
active lifespan
Although 73-year-old Lida has no problem with physical activities, such as dressing and eating, she does have difficulty with tasks that require some cognitive competence, such as preparing food and paying her bills. Lida is displaying difficulty in
instrumental activities of daily living.
Impaired eyesight in late adulthood is mostly due to
a reduction in the light reaching the retina of the eye.
Which statement about centenarians is accurate?
The number of centenarians has increased tenfold over the past 40 years.
Tarek has a family history of macular degeneration. Which of the following would you recommend to him as the most effective preventive measure?
A diet rich in green, leafy vegetables
After age 70, an elder's capacity to respond appropriately to other people declines because he or she is less able to
detect the content and emotionally expressive features of conversation.
The amount of air that can be forced in to and out of a person's lungs decreases throughout adulthood primarily because
the lung tissue becomes less elastic.
Eighty-six-year-old Anne has lost much of her muscle strength and has lost flexibility and strength in her tendons and ligaments. As a result, which of the following will be most difficult for her?
Rising from a chair
Mrs. Kovak's medications all have "smart caps" on them that beep to remind her to take her medicine and track the times and number of pills she takes. The "smart cap" is an example of
assistive technology
Mr. Prieto is an elder who does not eat as much as he used to. Which of the following statements is relevant to this situation?
Declines in taste and smell often reduce the quantity and quality of food eaten.
Reports of a decline in sexual activity among older people
may be exaggerated by cohort effects, as newer generations of elders will probably be more sexually active
If an elderly couple stops having sexual activity, which partner typically initiates the cessation?
the man
What are the sex differences in death rates from cardiovascular disease and cancer?
Men have higher death rates for both cardiovascular disease and cancer than women.
Mrs. Schmida has just experienced a blockage of blodd flow to her brain. This condition is known as ________ and is the fourth most common killer of older adults.
Mr. Hiroshi is experiencing painful, stiff, and swollen joints and muscles. His doctor informs him that the cartilage on the ends of his bones is deteriorating due to decades of wear and tear. Mr. Hiroshi has
Which condition is associated with an elevated risk for Alzheimer's disease?
A form of dementia that involves deterioration in subcortical brain regions is
Parkinson's disease.
Mrs. LaMarche has been diagnosed with a form of dementia. She is experiencing the gradual loss of many aspects of thought and behavior due to structural and chemical brain deterioration. Mrs. LaMarche has
Alzheimer's disease
After psychological symptoms, such as memory loss and depression, Alzheimer's disease generally progresses to
a lack of motor control
The brain of a person with Alzheimer's is likely to
have more neurofibrillary tangles and ayloid plaques than people without Alzheimer's
The relationship between Alzheimer's disease and education can best be summarized by saying that
education increases brain growth, producing a cognitive reserve.
It is important that doctors monitor the side effects of the medications they prescribe for elderly people because
these medications may produce symptoms similar to dementia
Mr. and Mrs. Archuleta have no severe medical needs but have difficulty keeping up with such "life maintenance" issues as cooking and cleaning. They moved into a housing situation that was very homelike, but had staff that provided extra supports. This is an example of
assisted living
An important reason older adults remember less about things they have experienced is that they
process information more slowly and incompletely
Mr. Hackebeil's grandchildren love to hear him talk about the things he did growing up, and how different the typical lifestyle was back then. When he remembers events from his childhood, he is exhibiting _______ memory.
Whey do older adults recall youthful events more readily than in their mid-adulthood lives?
Those events occurred during a period of rapid life change and identity development, and were probably novel experiences of personal significance.
The major reason older adults tend to use more pronouns and vague references and speak more slowly than younger adults is that they
have difficulty retrieving words from long-term memory
According to your text, wisdom can be summed up as
expertise in the conduct and meaning of life
In Erikson's theory of development, ego integrity versus despair involves
coming to terms with one's life
Nate, Tess, Leo, and Ian are all in their eighties. Nate feels whole, complete, and satisfied with his achievements. Tess regrets several major decisions in her life, but generally feels that it has turned out positively. Leo remains bitter and angry over some lost movie deals and expresses anger and contempt for those in the movie business. Ian doesn't remember. Who displays symptoms of dispair?
Yin-sing, at age 80, can't face the idea that she will die and the world will go on. She has children and grandchildren, but is not interested in their lives or futures. According to Peck, Yin-sing needs to work on
ego transcendence
Mr. Jeyakumar exhibits a heightened inner contentment and spends a lot of time in quiet reflection. According to Joan Erikson, Mr. Jeyakumar is displaying characteristics of
Mrs. Handerhan has arthritis. She has also lost two close friends who died within a month of each other. In spite of this, she sustains a sense of optimism and good psychological well-being, dampening her negative emotions and maximizing her positive feelings. Mrs. Handerhan
is exhibiting affect optimization
Which of the following statements is true regarding reminiscence?
Research shows that engaging in reminiscence can be positive and adaptive for elders
Mr. Naisby is recalling many of the past experiences of his life. He reflects on these experiences and contemplates their meaning in an attempt to understand himself better. Mr. Naisby is engaged in
life review
In long-term studies of personality traits, elders who seemed to have to come to terms with life despite its imperfections showed an increase in
May stops by her mother June's house twice a day to check on her. If June is having trouble getting dressed or making the bed, then May helps her and they chat while they work. If she's not having trouble, then May withdraws and attends to other jobs. May's behavior toward June during dressing and bed-making can be referred to as the
dependency-support script
In contrast to implications of the disengagement theory, elders actually
disengage from unsatisfying contacts but maintain satisfying ones
_______ have better accessibility to transportation and social services, while ______ are the most disadvantaged in terms of health, income, and social service availability.
Inner-city elders; elders who live in small towns and rural areas
The primary reason why more elders in many Western nations live on their own today than ever before is
improved health and finances
The increase in marital satisfaction in late adulthood is due in part to
increased perceptions of fairness as men contribute more to household tasks
One possible reason that elderly women feel less need to remary is that
their kinkeeper role and ability to form close friendships allows them to maintain satisfying relationships
Most elders who never married or had children report that
they have developed other meaningful relationships
The first consideration in the decision of whether to retire is generally
whether there will be enough income.
Which person is likely to retire first?
Elyester, who works in a blue-collar job
Elders who work hard to maintain their vitality and are able to limit the age-related declines in physical, cognitive, and social functioning are said to demonstrate
successful aging
Mrs. Beckett's body has succumbed to cancer. In the moments when her body can no longer sustain life, she gasps and experiences muscle spasms. She is experiencing
the agonal phase of death
Loss of heartbeat and respiration
are not adequate criteria for signifying death, because resuscitation techniques frequently permit vital signs to be restored
Mrs. Koppekin's doctor has determined that her brain stem continues to function but there is no electrical activity at all in her cortex. Mrs. Koppekin is
in a persistent vegetative state
Mrs. Halquist is dying. When communicating with her, one of the most important things her husband can do is to
treat her with esteem and respect, and address her greatest concerns
Among Westerners, which factor seems to have a greater impact on reducing death anxiety?
A spiritual sense of life's meaning
Mr. Honeywell really has no fear of death. He feels that a part of him will continue to live on through his children and through the engineering company that he built. Mr. Honeywell's beliefs reflect
symbolic immortality.
Mr. Nkoyongo, who is dying, yells at his wife and daughter, telling them they cannot possibly understand his feelings because they get to keep on living. He also refuses phone calls from his friends. According to Kbler Ross, how should Mr. Nkoyongo's wife and daughter react to his outbursts?
Recognize that the underlying cause for his behavior is the unfairness of death, and tolerate his outbursts
Most people who reach Kbler-Ross's acceptance stage
do so only in the last weeks or days of life
A terminally ill patient ________ experiences amplified pain, impaired immune system response, and poorer chances of survival
with profound depression
Treatment for profound depression for terminally ill patients should include
therapy, antidepressant medication, and patient and family education
Which contextual factor can help family members and doctors appreciate the way that a dying person manages the dying process?
understanding that the way that the individual viewed and coped with stressful life events in the past
The path of the hope trajectory for dying patients is typically
Hope for a cure, hope for prolonging life, hope for a peaceful death with as few burdens as possible
Most Americans and Canadians would prefer to die in
their own home.
Modern medical care has affected the choice of dying at home primarily by
extending life so that dying people are older, sicker, and have more difficulty living at home until the end.
The primary aim of the ______ is to provide a caring community sensitive to the dying person's needs so patients and family members can prepare for death in ways that are satisfying to them.
hospice approach
Estalee is near death and receiving palliative care. This means that she
will receive care aimed at relieving her pain and other symptoms, such as nausea and insomnia
When Mr. Jas slipped into a coma at the end of his battle with cancer, his family requested that his respirator and feeding tube be removed. In doing so, they were requesting
passive euthanasia
Alexa drew up a written document in which she specified the treatments she does and does not want in cases when she may be near to death. Alexa's document is a(n)
living will
Mr. Sainabou gave his doctors a signed and witnessed statement that appointed his daughter to make all health care decisions on his behalf, even though his death might ensue. This document was a(n)
durable power of attorney for health care.
The durable power of attorney for medical care is particularly useful for ensuring the partner's role
in relationships not recognized or sanctioned by law.
Margery is experiencing the most intense grief she will feel when dealing with the death of her husband. Margery is in which phase of the grieving process?
Which of these groups experiences a higher mortality rate?
bereaved men
Martha's mother is terminally ill and is expected to live for six more months. Because Martha can acknowledge that this loss is inevitable and even prepare for it emotionally allows her to engage in
anticipatory grieving
When people you care about have recently experienced the death of a loved one, your best response is to provide
sympathetic listening and simple presence.