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67 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back

What is urbanisation?

The growth in the proportion or people living in urban areas

What percent of the world's population live in urban areas?

over 50%

What percent of the UK's population live in urban areas?


What percentage of bangladesh's population live in urban areas?


Where is the most rapid urbanisation happening today?

In poorer countries

What two things cause urbanisation?

Rural- urban migration

Good healthcare in cities and high birth rate

What are the causes for rural-urban migration in poorer countries?

Often a shortage of services in rural areas

People in rural areas often believe standard of living is better in the cities

More jobs in rural areas as industry is attracted to the cities due to better infrastructure and larger workforce

Why is there rural-urban migration in richer countries?

Most is dues to the agricultural and industrial revolutions in the 18th and 19th century when machines replaced labour force in agriculture and new jobs were created in factories in towns

In the 20th century people left run down inner city areas to the country but now people are being encouraged back by the redevelopment of those areas

Why is birth rate high and healthcare good in the city?

Young people move to the cities to find work and these people have children in the cities increasing the proportion of the population which lives in urban areas

Better healthcare in urban areas mean people longer, increasing the proportion of people who live in urban areas

What are the 4 main parts of the city?

CBD, inner city, suburbs and rural urban fringe

Describe the central business district

Commercial centre of city with shops and offices where transport routes converge and has very high land values as there is lots of competition for space.

Buildings are tall and building density is high and few people live there

Describe the inner city

Goes around the CBD. Mix of poorer quality housing and older industrial buildings. Can be quite run down and deprived but there is also newer housing and industry where derelict land has been cleared and redeveloped

Describe the suburbs

Housing area towards the edge of a city.

Land is cheap and still close enough to commute into the CBD for work

In UK and USA middle class families live here as it is a nicer environment with less pollution and crime than the inner city

Describe the rural urban fringe

Part right on the edge of a city with both rural and urban land uses such as factories and farming. Here there are fewer houses

What is different about how the different parts of a city are used in some countries?

In some countries the land use doesn't match the model in places like France, Sweden and Italy. The richer middle classes live in the inner city and the suburbs are the more deprived areas

Give some ways the land uses of the parts of the city can change over time

Many shopping centres have moved out of town causing shops in the CBD to close

Inner city tower blocks have been removed and replaced with housing estates in the rural urban fringe

New housing is often build on brownfield sites in inner city not on the edge

What are 4 issues many urban areas face?

Shortage of good quality housing

Run down CBDs

Traffic congestion and pollution from cars

Ethnic segregation

Why is housing a problem in urban areas?

Growing populations need more houses and as the urban population has grown rapidly in some richer countries they face a shortage of housing

How do urban renewal schemes reduce the demand on housing?

Government strategies first used in the 1990s which encourage investment in new housing, services and employment in derelict areas in the inner city

Such as London Docklands Development Corporation which turned the run down docklands (brownfield site) into high quality housing

How do new towns reduce the demand on housing?

New towns have been built to house overspill population from existing towns and cities where there's a shortage of housing. Milton Keynes is a new town built in the 1970s

How do relocation incentives help to reduce the demand on housing in urban areas?

They're used to encourage people who live in large council houses that don't need them to move out of urban areas to free up houses

This happens in London where old people are encouraged to move out to the seaside or countryside and the council help people who volunteer to move out and give them money

Why are some CBDs becoming run down?

There is competition from out of town shopping centres and business parks which have cheaper rents so lure shops there and they are easier to get to

What are some solutions to prevent the CBD becoming run down?

Pedestrian areas to make them safer and nicer for shopping

Improving access with better public transport links

Convert derelict warehouses and docks into smart new restaurants, businesses and museums

Improve public areas such as parks and squares to make them more attractive

Initial government investment attracts businesses to return which attracts customers which attracts more businesses

Why is traffic a problem in urban areas?

More cars on the roads in cities may cause pollution, traffic jams and congestion and more accidents, This can put people off visiting

What are some solutions to traffic problems in urban areas?

Improve public transport to encourage people to use it instead of cars reducing air pollution and congestion etc.

Increase car parking charges in cities which discourages car users so people are more likely to use public transport

Bus priority lanes to speed up bus services so people are more likely to use them

Pedestrianising central areas to remove traffic from main shopping streets making the area more attractive

What are some reasons for ethnic segregation in cities?

people like to live close to people of the same religion and background and who speak the same language

People live near services important to their culture such as places of worship

People of the same ethnic background can be restricted similarly in where they live due to lack of money so they all live in the same area

What should solutions to ethnic segregation aim to do?

Give all people equal access to services rather than forcing them to mix

What are some ways to reduce ethnic segregation?

Make sure everyone can access information by printing leaflets in different languages

Improving communication between all parts of the community by involving leaders of different ethnic communities when making decisions

Providing interpretors at places such as hospitals and police stations

Make sure there are suitable services for different cultures such as if you can't be seen by a doctor of the opposite sex

What are squatter settlements?

Settlements that are built illegally in and around the city by people who can't afford proper housing

Where do most of the residents of squatter settlements or favelas come from?

The countryside

What are the houses built of in squatter settlements?

Waste materials such as plastic sheets and corrugated iron

What is bad about a squatter settlement?

Poorly made houses

No access to facilities


Often lots of crime

No rubbish collection or fire or ambulance services

What sector do many of the inhabitants of squatter settlements work in? What is this?

Informal sector- Where they make jobs for themselves and they are not taxed or monitored by the government

What is good about squatter settlements?

They govern themselves and have a strong sense of community spirit

How do residents try to improve the settlements? What is a problem with this?

Help each other to improve each others houses often at weekends but they don't have much money so there is limitations to what they can do.

They can do a lot more with some government help

Give 3 ways to improve a squatter settlement

Self help schemes, site and service schemes and local authority schemes

Describe self help schemes

Government and local people work together to improve life in the settlement. Government supplies building materials and local people use them to build houses and this helps provide better housing and money saved by government on labour can provide services

Describe site and service schemes

People buy a small amount of land and can borrow money to buy building materials to build or improve a house on their plot.

Rent money is used to provide basic services for the area

Local authority schemes

Funded by government and are about improving temporary accommodation built by residents. This was done in Rio when the city spent $120 million on Favela-Bairro project which aimed to improve the lives for residents of Rio's favelas

How many favelas does Rio de Janeiro have?

How much of the cities population lives in favelas

600 favelas

1/5th of cities residents live in favelas

When did the Favela Bairro project start? How many people and favelas does it involve?


253000 people

73 favelas

How much funding was there for the favela Bairro project and where did it come from?

$80 million

40% from local authority

rest from inter American development bank

What social improvements has the favela Bairro project made?

Day care centres and after school schemes to look after children when parents work

Adult education classes to improve adult literacy

Services to help those affected by drug addiction, domestic violence and alcohol addiction

What economic improvements has the favela Bairro project made?

Residents can now apply to legally own their properties

Training schemes help people learn new skills to find better jobs and earn more

What environmental improvements has the favela Bairro project made?

Wooden building replaced with brick and houses on very steep slopes removed

Streets paved and widened to allow access for emergency vehicles

Basic services such as clean water, electricity and rubbish collection are provided

How does the favela Bairro scheme achieve community involvement which is one of the most important parts of the project

Residents choose which improvements happen in their favela so they feel involved

Neighbourhood associations are formed to communicate with residents and make decisions

New services are staffed by residents providing an income and helping them learn new skills

What success has the favela- Bairro project had?

Standard of living and health has of residents has improved and life expectancy risen from 49 to 65 from 1980 to 2005

property values in favelas which are part of programme have risen by 80-120%

Number of local businesses has doubled and employment has risen

What problems can rapid urbanisation and industrialisation cause? Why?

Waste disposal problems- people in cities create a lot of waste which can cause environmental problems especially if it is not disposed of properly

Air pollution from burning fossil fuels in factories and vehicles

Water pollution where water carries pollutants into rivers and streams such as sewage and toxic chemicals can get into rivers and damage wildlife and health

How do richer countries dispose of waste?

Burying it in landfill, burning it and recycling it

Why do poorer countries struggle to dispose of waste?

Money- they often don't have enough to dispose of waste safely such as toxic waste that must be treated which is expensive and the country has more urgent things such as healthcare

Infrastructure- Poorer countries don't have the infrastructure needed- in squatter settlements the roads are not wide enough for rubbish trucks

Scale- the scale of the problem is huge and a large city will generate thousands of tonnes of rubbish per day

What are the effects of air pollution? How can they be managed?

Causes acid rain

Cause headaches and bronchitis

Some destroy ozone layer which protects us from harmful rays

Can be managed by setting air quality standards for industries and constant monitoring of levels of pollution to check they are safe

What are the effects of water pollution and how can they be managed?

Water pollution kills fish and aquatic animals affecting the food chain

Harmful chemicals can build pup in the food chain and poison humans who eat the fish in the pouted water

Contamination of water supplies with sewage can spread diseases such as typhoid

What is being sustainable?

Doing things in a way that lets people now have the things they need without reducing the ability of people in the future to meet their needs by behaving in a way that doesn't damage the environment irreversibly or use resources faster than they can be replaced

Why are big cities unlikely to ever be fully sustainable?

They need so many resources

What are 5 ways in which a city can be sustainable?

Reduce waste and safely dispose of it

Conserve natural environments and historic buildings

Building on brown field sites

Building carbon neutral homes

Creating an efficient public transport system

How do schemes to reduce waste and safely dispose of it help towards sustainable development?

More recycling means fewer new resources are needed as less waste is produced reducing the amount in landfill which is unsustainable as it wastes resources that could be recycled and eventually there will be no space left in landfill

How do schemes to Conserve natural environments and historic buildings help towards sustainable development?

Historic buildings and natural environments are resources as eventually they will run out and be used up today so they won't be available for future generations.

Historic buildings are restored, natural environments are protected and existing green space is left alone

How do schemes building on brownfield sites help towards sustainable development?

Brownfield sites are derelict areas that have been used but aren't being used now

Using brownfield sites for building stops green space being used up so green space is available for the future

Developing brownfield sites also makes the city look nicer

How do schemes building carbon neutral homes help towards sustainable development?

By building homes which make as much energy as they use through wind or solar energy more homes can be produced without damaging the environment too much or causing too much pollution

How does creating an efficient public transport system help towards sustainable development?

It means fewer cars will be on the road reducing pollution and buses can be used instead which emit less pollution and use less fuel. Some buses in London are powered by hydrogen and only emit water vapour

How do you get people to support sustainable initiatives?

Make them involved in them and the decisions to do with them

Where is Curitiba? How many people live there? What is the cities aims? How much money does it spend a year?

City in South Brazil

Population of 1.8 million

Aims to be sustainable and improve the environment, reduce waste and pollution and improve the residents quality of life

Spends $600 million a year

What are the 3 ways Curitiba tries to be sustainable

Reduce car use

Open spaces and conserve natural environments

Good recycling schemes

How does Curitiba try to reduce car use?

There is a good bus system which carries over 1.4 million people a day

It is an express bus system with pre paid boarding stations to reduce boarding times and bus only lanes on roads to speed up journey

All journeys cost the same

200km of bike paths in the city

Car use is 25% lower in Curitiba than the national average due to the popularity of the schemes

How does Curitiba conserve open spaces and natural environments?

Green space increased from 0.5m2 per person to 52m2 per person from 1970-90

Over 1000 parks and natural areas often in areas prone to flooding so they can be used and not affected by floods

1.5 million trees planted on streets by residents

Builders get tax breaks if their building project involves green space

What are Curitiba's recycling schemes?

70% of rubbish is recycled

Paper recycling there saves 1200 trees a day

Residents in poor areas where the streets are too narrow for rubbish collection can take their rubbish to local collection points in return for food and bus tickets

How successful has Curitiba's sustainable development been?

Reduction in car use means there is less pollution from fossil fuels so the environment isn't damaged for people in the future

Leaving green open space and conserving natural environment means people in the future will still be able to use open space

High levels of recycling means that fewer resources are used and less waste is put into landfill so resources will be available in the future

Curitiba is a nice place to live as 99% of residents say they are happy with their city