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25 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back

Changing Urban Environments

Changing Urban Environments


Rural-Urban Migration


increasing proportion of the population living in towns and cities.

Rural-Urban Migration:

People moving from the countryside to towns.

POOR People moving from rural areas to cities:

- shortage of services e.g education, acces to water, power, healthcare etc.

-To have better standard of living

-more jobs in urban areas b/c industry is attracted to cities b/c larger workforce and better infrastructure

RICH people from rural to cities:

- industry is attracted to cities b/c larger workforce and better infrastructure

- Redevelopment of of run down inner cities encourage rich people to come back to cities

The Burgess Model

The Burgess Model

Central Business District

Focal point of city

Highest land price therefore competition

Shops located here (accessible)

Retail, entertainment, financial

Main roads meet

Inner City

Factories replaced with terraced houses

Lots of flats and rejuvenation


Built between WW1 and WW2

Detached and semi-detached houses

Public transport links

Areas of green space (gardens)

Rural-Urban Fringe

Post war housing

Estates of detached and semi-detached housing (larger houses)

Homes have multiple cars

Urban Areas have same problems...

1) Shortage of good quality housing

2) Run down CBDs

3) Traffic Congestion and pollution from cars

4) Ethnic Segregation

Changing land use

•Shopping centres being built out of thecity centre in the UK have caused shops in the CBD to close down.

•Inner city tower blocks have beenreplaced with housing estates on the rural-urban fringe.

•New housing is often built on brownfieldsites (cleared derelict land) in the inner city instead of towards the edges ofthe city.

Shortages of houses been tackled by:

1) Urban Renewal Scheme - Government strategy. encourage investment in new housing services and employment in derelict inner city areas. Example - Dockland development in Liverpool ( the derelict docks were converted into good quality housing).

2) New Towns to house populations from existing towns e.g Milton Keynes a new town

3)Relocation Incentives: Encourage people living in large council houses to move out of urban areas. e.g London encouraging older people to move to seaside or countryside and also helps them financially.

CBD in decline b/c

they are out of town shopping centres andbusiness parks. they need revitalising

CBDs need to be revitalised

london docklands

salford quays

CBD's in some cities run down. Competition from out of town shopping centres and business parks which have cheaper rent

1) Pedestrianising areas - stopping car acsess so shoppers are more nice and safer for shoppers.

2) Better access with better public transport links and better car parking

3) Converting derelict warehouses into something better such as restaurants.

4) improving public areas so they are more attractive

Problems increased car ownership causes:

Congestion (people discouragedfrom visiting settlement/area)

Air and noise pollution

Increase in accidents

Buildings can become discoloured

Solutions to reduce increased car ownership

- improving public transport so people don't cars as much encouraging public transport (e.g manc metrolink)

- increasing car park fares so more people use public transport

-pedestrianisation of central areas, removes traffic -> more attractive to shoppers

- bus priority lanes - speed up bus service encourage public use

Segregation occurs when

people of particular ethnic group choose to live with others from the same ethnic group, separate from other groups. REASONS:

•Support from others

•A familiar culture -Beliefs, language

•Specialist facilities -Religious centres, food, shops

•Safety in numbers

•Employment factors -Cheap housing

Solutions to segregation

•Improvingeducational provision and opportunities in deprivedareas

•Increase employment through access toinformation and training

•Ensuring that the needs of minoritygroups in a community are understood and met•Providing facilities that encouragemeetings of all sections of the community rather than separate ethnic groups.

Strategies to support multicultural comunities (NOT TO MIX BUT PROVIDE EQUAL OPP)

- making sure everyone can access info about services e.g. by printing leaflet in variety of languages.

- providing interpreters at places like hospitals and police stations

- Improving communication between all parts of community - e.g involving leader of diff ethnic communities when making decisions

Ways to improve Squatter Settlements:

Selfhelp schemes:Government supplies building materials and local people build their own homes.Money saved on labour can be used to provide electricity and sewer.

Siteand service schemes: Peoplepay small amount of rent for a site and can borrow money for buildingmaterials which is then used to provide basic services in the area.

Local authority schemes: Funded by local government toimprove accommodation built by residents

Brownfield Pros

Greenfield Pros

Brownfield Pros -

Easy planning permission

Less empty spaces

Utilities provided

Roads already exist

Near to facilities in town

Cuts commuting

Greenfield Pros -

No clearing needed

No road restrictions


Some local facilities

Land cheaper

More garden space

Why do poorer countries find it hard to deal with managing pollution?

because it costs lots of money of range of resources needed e.g skilled workers & god infrastructure

Rapid urbanisation causes environment probs

•Waste disposal problems- people in cities create waste which can damage peoples health and environment if not disposed off properly.

•More air pollution from burning fuel, vehicle exhaust fumes.

•More water pollution- water carries pollutants from the cities into rivers and streams. For example, sewage and toxic chemicals from industry can get into rivers which causes serious health problems.

Waste disposal is prob in POOR places

•Money-poorer countries cannot afford to safely dispose off waste.

•Infrastructure-poorer countries don’t have the infrastructure,such as roads, that make waste collection easier.

•Scale- the problem is huge as largecities generate thousands of tons of waste.

Air pollution




•Acid rain which damages buildings and vegetation

•Health problems like headaches and bronchitis •Pollutants destroy ozone layer


•Setting air quality standards for industries •Monitoring level of pollutants





•Kills fish which disrupts food chain

•Chemicals can build up in a food chain and poison humans

•Sewage in water can spread diseases such as typhoid


•Building sewage treatment plants

•Laws forcing factories to remove pollutants from waste water

Sustainable Cities

Doesn’t use up resources faster than they can be replaced or irreversibly damage the environment.

•Schemes to reduce waste and safely dispose of it

•Conserving natural environment and historic buildings

•Building on brownfield sites

•Building carbon-neutral homes bedzed in lond does this

•Creating an efficient public transport system

Cheetham Hill - CULTURAL MIX

'diverse community'

-Irish people fled Great Famine

- Jews settled in the area in late 19 century, early 20century, fleeing persecution in continental Europe.

-Migrants from Indian subcontinent and Carribean settledin locality during 1950-60since, attracted africa, eastern europe and far east

manchester cbd

CBD improved since IRA bomb in 1996. Newdepartments built as Marks and Spencers attracting shoopers since