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60 Cards in this Set

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A process where an increasing proportion of the population live in towns and cities.

Urbanisation in the Northern hemisphere

-Mostly Urbanised

-Europe is the most urbanised at 60-79.9%

-Ireland is the anomaly at 0-19.9%

Urbanisation in developed countries


Urbanisation in the southern hemisphere

-Less urbanised

-Africa is the least 0-19.9%

-South America is the anomaly at 60%<

Urbanisation in developing countries

30% urbanised

Higher rate of urbanisation

Push factors in rural areas

-Lack of jobs caused by mechanisation

-Lack of education

-Low wages and poverty

-Disease and poorer healthcare

Pull factors in urban areas

-Health services and education

-Potential employment in an informal economy

-Jobs in industrialisation

Growth in Urban areas is caused by...

-Migration of youth which are young and child bearing

-Declining death rate caused by improved health

Ed Burgess model

Noticed that different parts of the city had different land uses and functions. Separated into rings.

CBD- Central business district

Land use: Commercial and retail. Housing above the shops.

Function: Jobs in retail. No manual labour. Employment and leisure.

Characteristics: Busy at day. Buildings of different heights. Trains and buses.

Inner City

Land use: attached residential homes and tower blocks. Some offices and smaller business.

Function; Large quantity of housing. Little leisure and employment.

Characteristics: houses of a similar height and attached. Some flats. Public transport.


Land use: Mostly residential, semi-detatched. Large garden space. Some high streets.

Function: Provide large housing. Small aamount of leisure. Little employment. Public transport to the CBD

Rural-Urban Fringe

Land use: Agricultural buildings. Residential homes. Retail parks.

Function: Agricultural labour. Some leisure areas.

Characteristics: Homes of similar height. Agricultural buildings. Towns. Roads and transport.

Map Features of the CBD

-Large buildings

-Lots of shops

-Little open space

-High building density

-A roads converging

Map features of the Inner City

-Tightly packed terraced housing

-Some small gardens

-Little open space

-B roads

-Grid-Iron Pattern

Map features of suburbs

-Larger semidetached homes

-B roads

-Large gardens

Map features of the RUF

-Some residential buildings+Farm houses

-Main roads

-Open space

Problems with richer cities- Housing in London

-7% population increase since 1971

-Number of houses increased by 30%

-People are living alone, divorces increases, life expectancy increase, marrying later.

Richer city solutions for housing-London

-Build 240,000 new homes

-Affordable pricing

-60% brownfield

Brownfield sites

-Shops and business nearby

-Roads and utilities already exist

-Easy to get planning permission

-Near to facilities

-Cuts commuting

Greenfield sites

-Doesn't need cleaning

-All space in towns and cities is being used

-Countryside is attractive

-Cheaper land

-Not restricted by land use

Providing Houses-Redeveloping Brownfield Sites

-Derelict and unused sites in the inner city cleared and redeveloped

-e.g Charter Quay in Kingston

Providing houses- Infilling in the suburbs

-Gardens and parks are sold off to increase the density of inhabitants.

+Good transport links to CBD

+Variety of homes

+Countryside not damaged

-Can create urban congestion

Providing houses- Urban extension

-Poor quality greenfield sites develops, e.g between Crawley and Gatwick

+Large space for family homes

+Large garden space

-Lack of roads and utilities

The inner city decline

1.Industrial revolution caused unemployment

2.Urban areas become specialist in areas of manufacture.

3.In 1950's heavy industry declined due to competition from abroad

4.Suburbanisation took place and the wealthy moved out to the suburbs.

5. Poorest left in the inner city with lowest levels of education.

6.Env becomes obsolete and derelict

7.Businesses reluctant to move in due to low skill level.

8.Local authorities get no tax and can't invest

Negative outcomes of the Inner city decline

-Lack of industry and investment

-High unemployment levels

-Crime due to poverty

-Derelict buildings

-Lack of tax

-Low level of education

-Lack of open spaces

-abandoned homes and poverty

New Islington-What?

-Sustainable community

-Improved standard of living

-Access to jobs

-Access to education

-Health care

-Improved quality of life

New Islington-Who?

-Local authority

-Local community

New Islington-Where has the money come from?

-Local authorities

-Private investors/companies

New Islington- What has been done?

-66 new homes, 200 ground floor flats, 500 apartments.

-Refurbished hospital

-Work shops

-Water ways

-Urban amities (e.g shops)


-Community facilities

New Islington- Positives and Negatives

+Improved healthcare and education

+More jobs

+What the community needed


-Still taking place

Traffic Problems

-Respiratory issues caused by particulates

-Increased fuel consumption and cost

-Congestion slows deliveries

-Discolouring of buildings

-Contributes to atmosphere

-Less people living the CBD

Traffic Sticks (Encourage people to leave the car behind)

-Congestion charges in London encourage people to take alternatives.

-Multiple occupancy lanes mean people will travel in groups. Reduced number of cars.

Traffic Carrots (encourage people to take public transport)

-Oyster cards make entering public transport efficient and easy.

-Park and ride systems encourage people to park outside the CBD and us public transport in.

CBD problems- Conflict between pedestrians and traffic

-Create an inner ring road where traffic is concentrated away from centre.

-Clarence street in Kingston

CBD problems- Lacking identity due to chain shops.

-Local markets are encouraged and locally made products promoted

-e.g Market square in Kingston

CBD problems- Non-attractive area. Out of town sites preferred.

-Street art, entertainment and musicians encouraged in certain areas.

-e.g tumbling telephones in Kingston

CBD Problems- Lack of diversity within town centres. Shopping the only purpose

-Mixed use development leisure complexes encouraged. Creates a night time economy.

-e.g The Rotunda in Kingston

CBD problems- Out of town shopping centres offered a better place to shop in poor weather.

-Shopping centres developed under 1 roof

-e.g Bentalls centre in Kingston

CBD problems-Litter and Pollution

-Kingston first rangers clear 45000 sq. m of gum each year and remove graffiti within 24hrs.


when people of a similar ethnic groups choose to live with people of the same ethnic groups.

Segregation occurs because...

-Support from others

-Familiar culture

-Safety in numbers

-Employment factors (Immigrant groups tend to do lower paid jobs or have a high unemployment rate. Limited money means immigrants buy homes in cheaper parts of the inner city)

Reducing segregation in Leeds

-Improved access to education so people can learn to read and write.

-Improving literacy rate so people can gain jobs

-Educating host about ethnic groups to increase tolerance.

-Encouraging facilities for groups to mix e.g youth groups

-Providing mixed tenure accommodation in new housing blocks.

Mumbai Sanitation

-Low level of sanitation and therefore quality of life.

-1 tap provides 10 homes.

-Waste in streets. 1 toilet provides 1440 people.

-High population density. 30 people per 30 sq. ft. This causes rapid spread of disease.

Mumbai Economy

-Informal economy (No tax)

-High level of employment (85%)

-Unsafe conditions.

-No tax means no investment in health and education

Mumbai Environment

-Unstable land.

-High risk of flooding

-Rubbish and chemical poisoning.

-Vials is commen

Mumbai Utilities.

-Illegal electricity hookups are unsafe. Fires and electrocution.

-Houses made of flammable materials.

-No roads and no tax means no fire service

Rio Favelas- Assisted self help schemes

-Legal rights are given to the land to spur improvement.

-Affordable loads are given to people for materials.

-Training schemes for builders

-with money saved on builders, companies provide electricity water and roads.

Rio Favelas- Site and service schemes

-Area of land is redeveloped and infrastructure is put in place

-families build with what they can afford

-Loans taken out for improvements

-Rent paid for legal rights to the land

Rio- Favela Bairo Projects- Social improvements

Services for people with addictions

Adult literacy classes

Rio- Favela Bairo Projects- Economic Improvements

-Legal rights to properties

-Training schemes for secondary employment skills

Rio- Favela Bairo Projects- Environmental improvements

-Widening streets for fire and ambulance access

-weekly rubbish collecting

Rio Favella improvement stats

-80-120% property value increase

-Local business doubled

-Improved sanitation

Mumbai Waste


-Rising population

-Governments desperate for economic growth so allow unregulated waste disposal

-Improving QOL increases waste.


-7500 tons of garbage and 2100 tons of industrial waste per day.

Dzherhinsk (Russia) Toxic waste


-300,000 tons of toxic waste dumped in the 30's

-Chemical weapons manufacture


-Deadliest chemical pollution in the world

-Death rate of 206%

-Life expectancy of 47

Lenfen (China) Air Pollution


-Coal mines

-1/3 of China's coal energy


-Highest sulphur dioxide levels

-Astma and bronchitis

-Acid rain

-400,000 pollution deaths per year

Citarum River (Indonesia) Water Pollution


-5m living on the banks

-Human Sewerage, animal crossings


-River filled with rubbish

-Fish extinction and poisoning


India E-Waste


-people break down computer parts from developed countries.

-Burning and boiling for gold+platinum


-Cadmium and lead cause health problems

-10 x normal lead in blood

Features of a Sustainable City

-Resource and services accessible to all

-Public transport

-Walking and cycling is safe

-Open space for leisure

-Renewable resources used

-Waste is recycled

-Energy efficient

-Affordable housing

-Investment for the feature

Millenium village

-Triple glazing and double thickness cavity to stop non-renewable resources being wasted.

-Southern facing walls and Sainsbury's has earth walls and 14 turbines. This means that less energy is used on heating and electricity.

-Grey water recycling on the o2 roof reduces energy usage on water cleaning.

-New tube station, 3 new bus routes and homes have been built next to jobs/ shops to reduce cars usage.