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54 Cards in this Set

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Thinking

A Process by which a new mental representation is formed through the transformation of information by complex interaction of the mental attributes of judging.

Three Aspects of Thinking

1. Cognitive: Internal (covert) activity (behavior): the process of thinking itself may not be observable, we may only see the input (problem) and outcome (answer).


2. Involves some manipulation of knowledge in the cognitive system. Retrieval of past experience, knowledge, manipulation of them, formation of new organization.


3. Directed: goal-oriented: not random activities.

Concept formation
The discernment of the properties common to a class of objects or ideas. Concept formation is related to categorization of objects.

Concreteobjects

perceptual propertiese.g., Concept of birds Properties: has wings, beaks, can fly, lays eggs, etc.

Abstractideas

semantic and abstract propertiese.g., Concept of cognition Properties: internal, mental activities, includes sensation, perception, attention, memory, thinking, etc.

evidence: P, therefore, Q

affirming the antecedent (Modus Ponens): valid inference

evidence: not P, therefore, not Q

denyingthe antecedent: invalid inference

evidence: Q, therefore, P

affirming the consequent: invalid inference

evidence: not Q, therefore, not P

denying the consequent (Modus Tollens): valid inference.

Algorithm

a fixed procedure to solve problems. An algorithm gives us the correct answer always.

Heuristic

A rule of thumb that we use to solve problems

Errorsin decision making:


Availability

people have tendency to make decision based on information that is available for them regardless of its or frequency

Errors in decision making:


Representativeness heuristic

people have tendency to make decisions based on some instances that “seem” representative

Errors in decision making:


Decision frames

a decision maker’s conception of the acts, outcomes, and contingencies associated with a particular choice.

Framing effects

The tendency for people to make different choices among the same alternatives, depending on the alternatives.

Problemsolving

thinking that is directed toward the solving of a specific problem that involves both the formation of responses and the selection among possible responses.

GestaltpsychologyFunctionalfixedness

there is a tendency to perceive things in terms of their familiar uses and that the tendency often makes it difficult to use them in an unfamiliar way.

Executive functions

Executive functions include the ability to plan actions toward a goal, to use information flexibly, to realize the ramifications of behavior, and to make reasonable inferences based on limited information


Some researchers proposed that executive functions are closely related to fluid intelligence

Lateral surface: DLPFC (BA9, 46), VLPFC (BA44, 45)

Working memory, maintenance, manipulation

Medial surface: Cingulate cortex (BA24, 32)

Monitoring

Orbital surface: Orbital frontal (BA11)

Decision making, value judgment, etc.

Frontal pole (BA 10)

Episodic memory retrieval, task sets, mind wandering, intention

Executive functions and tasks

(1) Planning & decision making


(2) Error correction & trouble shooting. Individuals with executive dysfunction are poor at starting an action or a behavior, and have difficulty stopping it once started.


(3) Overcoming habitual response (or inhibition of habitual/prepotent response)


(4) Novelty (or generation)

Phonetics:


Speech perception

Phonetics is the study of how speech sounds are made, transmitted, and received.

Syntax:



studyof grammars

Semantics:


Psycholinguistics, Language comprehension

study of meanings of words and sentences)representation of meanings

Pragmatics:


Languagecomprehension, communication

study of the use of languages) appropriate use of wordsPolitically correct words

Psycholinguistics

A filed in psychology that has emerged under the influence of the transformational grammar of Chomsky.

Phonemes

the smallest unit of speech, represented by one pronunciation symbol.


e.g., pig /pig/ - big /big/, seat /sēt/ - sit /sit/

Morphemes

the smallest unit of meaning, such as prefix, suffix, roots, etc. Words consists of combinations of morphemes.


e.g., word morphemes yes yes talking talk- ing horses horse– sunhappiness un - happi -ness

Syntax: Productivity

an infinite number of sentences can be produced based on the grammatical rules of a language

Syntax: Regularity

grammatical rules of a language


S + V + O is different from O + V + S


The boy hit the ball (correct)


Hit boy the ball the (incorrect)

Reversibility

The boy hit the ball (correct)


Hit boy the ball the (incorrect)


The ball hit the boy (reversible or irreversible) The wall hit the boy


The girl hit the boy (reversible)

Competence

an ability to learn and use language


Competence is universal (All humans have the same competence to learn any language regardless of the biological difference such as race)

Performance

-the language that is actually used


-Psychologists study this aspect of language


-Performance is specific (people speak languages that are spoken around them)


-the actual use of that language in real situations

Deep structure

an underlying level of grammatical organization that specifies how sentences should be interpreteda grammatical structure that is read for meaning, but not the semantic representation itself.

Surface structure

a syntactic representation of a sentence that comes closest to how the sentence is actually pronounced.A grammatical structure that is read for sounds.

Transformationalrules

Rules that govern the transformation from the deep structure to the surface structure.


e.g., Transformation from active sentence to passive sentence


Active: The dog chased the cat


Passive: The cat was chased by the dog

Language acquisition device (LAD)

the innate capacity that enables children to learn their mother tongue.In other words, competence is innate rather than learned, and what is learned is performance, such as particular pronunciations and grammars.

Reference theories

meaning is what a word refers toe.g., the word “student” refers to all the instances of students

Image theories

meaning is inherent in the image a word evokese.g., George Washington refers to the image that we have about him

Encyclopedictheories

meaning is everything we know about the worde.g., “Dog” everything we know about “dog”.

Componential theories


(Definitional theories)

A word can be disassembled into a set of meaning components (defining features).e.g., Bachelor: male, unmarried, adult

Family resemblance hypothesis

prototypical members of categories have most attributes (characteristic features) in common with other members of the category and least attributes in common with other categories.

Level of descriptionBasic level (natural level)

appropriate level of description in a given contextBasic levels depend on contexts, knowledge, etc.e.g., How would I describe myself?A psychologist?A cognitive psychologist?A cognitive psychologist studying attention?

Linguistic-relativity hypothesis (Sapier & Whorf hypothesis)


Linguistic determinism

Linguistic determinismStronger version: Perception and thought are determined (controlled) by language. We cannot think about anything that our language does not name. Weaker version: Perception and thought are affected (influenced) by our language. It is harder for us to think about something that our language does not name.

Regions associated with aphasias

Broca’saphasia

Problem in speech (output production), with intact comprehension Telegraphic speech e.g., “need help, send money” “ Son . . . university . . . smart . . . boy . . . good . . . good. . . “Syntax (reversible sentence) “The boy was hit by the girl. Who hit whom?” “Boy hit girl.“Repeating “Chrysanthemum” “Chrysa . . . mum . . . mum. . .”

Wernicke’s aphasia

Problem in comprehension (formation of sound image), with intact speech (though speech contents are not meaningful)Semantic errors (television for telephone)Production of utterances that do not exist in their language (romer)e.g., “I called my mother on the television and did not understand the door. It was not for breakfast but she came from far. My romer is tomorrow morning, I think.”

Alexia

inability to read due to brain damage (angular gyrus)

Dyslexia

an individual with normal vision is unable to properly interpret written language. Dyslexia is more common in males and is often first recognized as a reading difficulty in the first grade. Individuals can see and recognize letters but are unable to spell and write words. They have no impairment of object or picture identification. Dyslexia is not related to intelligence and in fact several famous scholars were thought to be dyslexic (for example Albert Einstein, Thomas Edison). (Dyslexia: basic information, brain)

Agraphia

inability to write due to brain damage (angular gyrus)




However alexia and agraphia are dissociable, as some patients have alexia without agraphia (e.g., Greenblatt, 1973): patients can write a sentence with little difficulty, but they cannot read the sentences they just wrote. Others have agraphia without alexia (e.g., Hecaen & Kremin, 1976): they can read but cannot write

Brain activation related to dyslexia

There is a big difference in the frontal regions, including the Broca’s area and DLPFC, but also in the temporal lobe (Wernicke’s area).

There is a big difference in the frontal regions, including the Broca’s area and DLPFC, but also in the temporal lobe (Wernicke’s area).