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41 Cards in this Set

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korsakoff's syndrome

a condition caused by a prolonged deficiency of vitamin B1, usually as a result of chronic alcoholism. It leads to destruction of ares in frontal and temporal lobes, which causes permanent impairments to memory

anterograde amnesia
the loss of the ability to assimilate or retain new knowledge
retrograde amnesia
the loss of memory for events that have happened in the past
long-term memory (LTM)
the system that is responsible for storing info for long periods of time
everything occurring before 30 seconds ago is in the LTM
LTM provides both an...
archive that we can refer to when we want to remember events from the past, and background info that we consult as we use working memory
experiment that shows distinction between STM and LTM
Read a list of words out loud to the participant. Participant then had to write down as many they could remember. They analyzed how many words they remembered from the first 5 the middle 5 and the last 5. The plotted percentage recall for each word against a word's position on the list makes a serial position curve.

the serial position curve indicates that memory is better for words at the beginning and end than for the middle. (primacy and recency effect)

primacy effect
recency effect
superior memory for stimuli presented at the beginning of a sequence

superior memory for stimuli presented at the end of a sequence
participants had time to rehearse words and transfer them to the LTM
experiment that studied the idea that the primacy effect occurs because participants have more time to rehearse words on the list
procedure: presented list of 20 words at rate of one word per 5 seconds then then asked participants to write down all the words they could remember. This created a regular serial position curve. Then he asked them to study the list as it was being presented by repeating the words out loud during the second interval between words.
results: Words presented at beginning were rehearsed more so they were remembered more.
experiment that demonstrates the recency effect

derived serial position curve the usual way, then they did another experiment where they measured the curve after having participants count backward for 30 seconds right after hearing the last word on the list.

Results:The primacy effect was intact but because of the 30 second delay there was no recency effect.
What is the predominant coding in LTM?
semantic coding (not auditory or visual which can also happen in LTM)
semantic coding is illustrated by the types of errors ppl make in tasks that involve the LTM (i.e., misremembering the word tree as bush would indicate that the meaning of the word tree is what registered in LTM)
study that demonstrates the importance of meaning in LTM (related to semantic coding)
procedure: participants listened to a tape recording of a passage and then measured their recognition memory to determine whether they remembered exact wording of sentences or the general meaning of the passage.
results: ppl generally were able to correctly identify a sentence that was in the passage, but many also picked sentences that had the same meaning but were worded differently. Not many picked the sentence with different meaning. thus ppl remember the general meaning of the passage
recognition memory
the identification of a stimulus that was encountered earlier

measured by presenting a stimulus during a study period and later present the same stimulus plus others that were not presented. The task is to determine if the stimulus was presented earlier or not

the strongest evidence indicating that STM and LTM are separated in the brain is provided by

neuropsychological studies
study patients with brain damage that have established double dissociation (situations in which one function is absent while another is present), which indicates that STM and LTM operate independently and are served by different mechanisms. An example is Clive Wearing, he has functioning STM (can remember last 30 seconds) but is unable to form new LTMs.
an example showing that STM and LTM are separated in the brain (STM intact but LTM not)
H.M.'s hippocampus was removed in an attempt to eliminate his epileptic seizures. It eliminated his ability to form new LTMs

an example showing that STM and LTM are separated in the brain (LTM intact but STM not)

K.F. had a reduced digit span of only 2 and her recency effect on the serial position curve was reduced. She still had a functioning LTM as she was able to hold and form new LTMs
a double dissociation for STM and LTM chart on page 154
study it!
brain imaging experiment that demonstrates activation of different ares of brain for STM and LTM
procedure: presented list of words to participants then presented a single "probe" word which was either a word from near the beginning, a word from near the end, or a new word that hadn't been presented. The task was to determine whether the word had been presented before. Their brain activity was measured with fMRI after the probe was presented and as they were preparing to respond
results: probe word that were form beginning (LTM) activated areas of brain associated with both STM and LTM this can be explained because they are in LTM but return to STM when recalled. IN contrast words from end of list activated only areas associated with STM
explicit/conscious memory
implicit/non declarative memory
two main divisions of LTM
unconscious, used without awareness
explicit memory is divided into episodic and semantic memory which are memory for personal experiences and stored knowledge and memory for facts. They are explicit because they can be described or reported.
Implicit memory is divided into priming, procedural memory, and conditioning which are 1. a change in response to a stimulus caused by the previous presentation of the same or similar stimulus 2. memory for doing things (ability to type) 3. classical conditioning
episodic and semantic memory
divisions of explicit memory
are memory for personal experiences and stored knowledge and memory for facts
procedural memory,
and conditioning
Implicit memory is divided into
1. a change in response to a stimulus caused by the previous presentation of the same or similar stimulus 2. memory for doing things (ability to type) 3. classical conditioning
episodic memory is for events and semantic memory is for facts because we are distinguishing between the two types of memory based on
the types of information remembered and possibly even the type of experience associated with each
i.e, metal time travel is the defining property of the experience of episodic memory
memory chart on page 156
study this!
mental time travel
the experience of traveling back in time to reconnect with events that happened in the past (self knowing, self remembering)
this is the defining property of the experience of episodic memory
evidence that supports the idea that episodic memory and semantic memory are served by different mechanisms
K.C. suffered severe damage to his hippocampus and surrounding structures and thus lost his episodic memory, he can no longer relive any of the events of his past. He does know that certain things happened which corresponds to semantic memory (knows his brother died but cannot remember about hearing the circumstances of his death or his experience at the funeral)
An Italian woman suffered an attack of encephalitis and lost her semantic memories (could not recognize words, could not recall facts)
brain imaging evidence that episodic and semantic memories are served by different mechanisms
procedure: had participants keep diaries on audiotape describing everyday personal events and facts drawn from their semantic knowledge
results: when participants later listened to the tapes while in an MRI scanner different areas of the brain were activated depending on which type of memory they were listening to on the tape
connections between episodic and semantic memories
when we are learning facts we are usually simultaneously having a personal experience.
episodic memories can be lost leaving only semantic memories (remember a fact but not the experience in which you learned it)
(connections) semantic memory can be enhanced if associated with episodic memory
semantic memories that have personal significance are easier to remember than semantic memories that are not personally significant
i.e, facts about your graduation easy to remember because your graduation is personally relevant
(connections) semantic memory can influence our experience by influencing attention
if watching a football game you will pay more attention to the plays if you have a lot of knowledge about football and you will remember episode better
occurs when the presentation of one stimulus (the priming stimulus) changes the response to a subsequent test stimulus, either positively (positive priming, which causes an increase in speed or accuracy of the response to the test stimulus), or negatively (negative priming, which causes a decrease in the speed or accuracy of response to test stimulus)
types of priming: repetition priming, conceptual priming

implicit because you do not consciously know you are being primed and do not remember the priming word
repetition priming
a type of positive priming that occurs when the test stimulus is the same as or resembles the priming stimulus
i.e, seeing the word bird may cause you to respond more quickly to another presentation of the word bird than to a word you had not sen
conceptual priming
occurs when enhancement caused by the priming stimulus is based on the meaning of the stimulus
i.e, presentation of the word furniture might cause you to respond faster to the presentation of the word chair
avoiding explicit remembering in a priming experiment
make it not appear to be a priming test, for example if the priming stimulus are names of animals ask them whether each animal is more than two feet high.
two tests that do not directly test memory in relation to priming
have participants complete a word from a fragment such as par.is primed with a repetition stimulus such as parrot they will be more likely to complete fragment as parrot
another example would be to test how accurately or quickly the participant responds to a stimulus. This could be tested by presenting a list of words and asking them to press a key every time they see a word that is four letters. Priming would be indicted by faster or more accurate response to 4 letter words that had been presented earlier
experiment that shows definite proof that priming involves implicit memory
procedure: tested three groups of participants (1) 8 amnesia patients with Korsakoff's syndrome and 2 patients with other forms of amnesia (2) patients without amnesia who were under treatment for alcoholism (3) patients without amnesia who had no history of alcoholism. He presented a list of words to the participants and asked them to rate each word on a scale of 1 to 5 on how much they liked each word then after this they were tested with/by (1) a test of explicit memory, in which they were asked to recall the words they had seen (2) a test of implicit memory, in which they were presented with three letter fragments and were asked to add a few letters to create the first word that came to their mind
results: the amnesia patients had poor recall compared to the other two groups, but did just as well on the implicit memory test, this shows that priming can occur even when there is little explicit memory for the words
an example of repetition priming in a person with brain damage (experiment)
procedure: tested 5 patients with Korsakoff's syndrome by presenting incomplete pictures and the participants task was to identify the pictures. They started with a very incomplete and showed a more and more complete pic until they were able to figure out what it was.
results: by the third day of testing the participants made fewer errors, even thought they had no memory of the previous days training. This represents an effect of implicit memory because the patients learned from experience even thought they couldn't remember having it.
what is an example of a situation in which implicit memory has an effect on our bx without our awareness?
experiment that shows ads have an effect on us
procedure: had participants scan articles in a magazine, each page had an ad but they were told not to pay attention to them.
results:when they were later asked to rate a number of ads on how appealing, eye catching, distinctive and memorable they were, they gave higher ratings to the ones they had been exposed to. This qualifies as an effect of implicit memory because when asked if they recognized any of them they only recognized a small percentage.
propaganda effect
participants are more likely to rate statements they have read or heard before as being true, simply because they have been exposed to them before. This can occur even when they are told the statements are false when they first see or hear them
this involves implicit memory because it can occur even when ppl are not aware that they have been exposed to the statement before
procedural memory
also called skill memory because it is memory for doing things that usually require action
how has the implicit nature of procedural memory been demonstrated? (2 examples)
amnesia patients can master a skill without remembering any of the practice. For example H.M. practiced a task called mirror drawing which involves copying down pics that they see in a mirror. After a number of days H.M. became better at this even thought each time he did it he thought he was practicing it for the first time.
Another example is that K.C. learned how to stack books in a library
example of classical conditioning

present a tone to a person followed by a puff of air into their eyes that causes the person to blink. soon the tone itself causes blink.

this is implicit memory because it can occur even if the person has forgotten about the original pairing of the tone and air puff