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108 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Which of the following is least likely to be studied by a modern cognitive psychologist?
dreaming about elephants
The influential experimental work of ________ is perhaps most striking because he rejected Wundt’s view that higher mental processes, such as memory, could not be studied objectively.
Hermann von Ebbinghaus
During World War II psychologists applied their skills to real-world problems, such as the difficulties faced by aircraft pilots and radar operators. To deal with these practical concerns, psychologists began to focus more on:
mental processes, such as attention and decision making.
Computers provided cognitive psychologists with a new analogy for mental activity, the most important aspect of which was thinking of mental activity as:
symbol manipulation.
Modern cognitive psychologists rely on many largely philosophical approaches to understanding the mind and are often skeptical of purely empirical approaches.
We are generally conscious of our own mental processes and abilities.
One of the greatests strengths of Titchner’s structuralist approach was that his methods produced results that could easily be replicated by other researchers.
Noam Chomsky’s views on language were a direct extension of those proposed by the behaviorists.
Wilhelm Wundt’s technique of selbst-beobachtung, or ‘self observation,’ was a method of reporting inner sensations and experiences. In English, this became known as:
The behaviorist tradition was primarily concerned with:
learned behaviors and observable stimuli.
The verbal learning approach was largely atheoretical, borrowing its basic techniques from both Ebbinghaus and from:
behaviorist stimulus-response (S-R) associationism.
When cognitive psychologists claim that humans are ‘active information processors,’ this means that human beings:
actively seek out information in the environment for mental procesing.
The three examples at the beginning of the chapter show that our ability to answer simple questions is actually quite complex and depends on many different mental processes.
As defined by the field of cognitive psychology, ‘memory’ is nothing more than a single mental process: the retention (or storage) of information.
The behaviorist and neobehaviorist perspectives were highly committed to Aristotle’s notion of the ‘tabula rasa.’
Wilhelm Wundt
1st experimental lab
Hermann von Ebbinghaus
Nonsense syllables
Edward Titchner
William James
John B. Watson
Noam Chomsky
Attributing human abilities to non-human animals.

to assume they are doing what we would do is unconfirmable
General Principles: Sciences is about the general interpretation of observations

Prediction and Control: If you understand behavior, you will be able to predict + control
The learning of US + CSa blocks the learning of CSb
British empiricism
Philosophers who believe experience and senses interact to form knowledge.

Said everything is learned (extreme view)

"There is nothing in the mind that is not first in the senses." - Locke
CR - Conditioned Response
Past conditioning response to Conditioned Stiumulus
CS - Conditioned Stimulus
Initially a neutral stimulus

US + CS = CR
classical conditioning
involves presentations of a neutral stimulus along with a stimulus of some significance.

aka Respondent/Pavolovian conditioning
conditioning trial
US + CS = CR
- Closeness, togetherness in time

- Two stimuli in close proximity in time will form a response

- Doesn't explain blocking or overshadowing
continuity of species
- the first theory of the behaviorists metatheory.

"No dividing line between man and brute".

- Theory from Darwin: There are commonalities among species and we shouldn't see humans as different from other animals.
continuous reinforcement
Every time the desired response is made, we provide a reinforcing stimulus
Darwin, Charles
- Influenced functionalists

- Natural selection and adaptive functions.

- Common ancestry: we should see lineage as progression.
drive reduction
- Theory from Hull

- A reinforcer is a stimulus that reduces a biological drive (ie, hunger)
Ebbinghaus, Hermann
nonsense syllables

Found that non-sense doesn't exist in humans.

Also coined the term 'operational definitions'
knowledge comes to us by experience and senses
- The mind exists, but serves no purpose

- Research should not be spend studying consciousness

- Psychology is the study of behavior, not the mind.
study of the nature and origin of knowledge
FI schedule
Fixed interval: An interval of time (since last response) until next response will earn a reinforcement.

The least motivating schedule of reinforcement
FR schedule
Fixed Ratio: A ratio of response to reinforcement.

- ratio never changes.

- FR 10 = 10 responses for one reinforcement
Access problems

- Memory is still there but difficulty in finding it.
The study of mental functions.

- Studied the adaptive functions of the mind, mostly through animal problem solving.
Garcia effect
Conditioned taste aversion.

- Single-trial learning which is also resistant to extinction.
insight learning
- Kohler's chimp trials.

- Put a banana at the top of a cage and gave the chimps a variety of things to get the banana.

- Monkeys learned how to put the objects together to get the banana without any conditioning.
insight learning
- a light bulb moment that cannot be explained through behaviorism

- Changes behavior BEFORE it occurs
instinctual drift
- Breland and Breland

- Animal reverts back to natural ways instead of operantly conditioned ways.

- Proved that nativism is valid
instrumental conditioning
- aka Operant conditioning

- How consequences shape our future behavior
- Developed by Wundt (structuralist)

- Ask people to look into their minds and ask what they see.
James, William
- Great functionalist thinker, not researcher.

- Coined the term 'stream of consciousness'
language productivity
-Chomsky rebuttal of Skinner

People do not generate new speech acts due to reinforcement.

- Proves that rationalism is valid.
mediated behaviorism

Started talking about smaller mechanisms that spurred responses.

Delved into an area that couldn't be explained by behaviorism
any information that is held for a period of time
The subject matter of the mind
A set of underlying assumptions that guide you through the science
Metatheory for behavioralists
1. Continuity of species
2. Epiphenomenal mind (no mentalism)
3. Empirical epistemology
4. Assumes gradual learning
5. Guiding metaphor: Reflex Arc (S-R science)
innate, hereditary, knowledge is passed down.

- Instinct does not mean intuition
natural selection
Allows the organism to adapt to his environment optimally
nonsense syllable
Used by Ebbinghaus to understand learning

Harder to remember than normal words.
- Unbiased observations
- Need to be reproducible
- Allows agreement in findings
operant conditioning
is the use of consequences to modify the occurrence and form of behavior
When a more intense CS forms a stronger CR relationship than the other CS
A consequence of a behavior that decreases the probability of that response being made in the future.
negative consequence
Removal of a stimulus
positive consequence
Addition of a stimulus
partial reinforcement
Giving reinforcement to only a certain number of responses, or giving reinforcement over a period of time.
The application of logical, reasonable thought
reflex arc
S-R science

- A simple mechanism in which there are innate, inborn wirings and responses when you encounter a stimulus.

- Nativistic S-R
A consequence of a behavior that encourages that behavior to be repeated
savings score
The difference between the number of trials from one successful memorization needed to another.

Measure of memory
the status of facts that are not logically necessarily true or false
cumulative record
Skinner devised the cumulative record, where the slope of a line equals frequency.
Getting information and making it usable.
Information encoded must have a particular format for retrieval/use.
Locating information you want and bringing it into cognitive sense
tabula rasa
Theory from British Empiricists.

Born without knowledge. Blank slate.
stream of consciousness
Coined by William James

A continuous flow of mental activity, cannot analyze the beginning and end of processes.

A term used to describe the day to day activity of the mind.
Trying to identify basic structures of the mind.

Created by Wilheim Wundt.
learning curve
Curve that shows the strength of he CR to the CS alone.

Greatest changes are in initial trials.
Structure of how information is put into memory.
hypothesis testing
Testing a different hypothesis to prove a null hypothesis wrong.
radical behaviorism
Had no theory about what is a reinforcer.

Simply said to observe, not to explain behavior

Not very scientific
intervening variables
hypothetical internal states that are used to explain relationships between observed variables, such independent and dependent variables.

Intervening variables are not real things. They are interpretations of observed facts, not facts themselves. But they create the illusion of being facts.
S-R science

The connection between environmental stimuli and response.
methodological behaviorism
the data of psychology must be inter-subjectively verifiable;

no theoretical prescriptions. It has been absorbed into general experimental and cognitive psychology.
Respondent Conditioning
Also called Pavlovian or classical conditioning
Pavlovian conditioning
Also called Respondent or classical conditioning
simultaneous brightness contrast
Levin and Banaji.

Gray box comparison study.

Perception of the color inside the box was dependent upon the color of the outside box.
spontaneous recovery
First need extinction.

Weakens after every extinction

If you cue the CS, the CR occurs again.

This reversal is not as strong as the time when it was programmed.
Titchener, Edward
Trained with Wundt and came to the US.

Established structuralist psychology.
Wundt, Wilhelm
Father of modern experimental psychology

First to publish psychology textbook.

First psychological lab.
Unconditioned Response

Natural response to the US
Unconditioned Stimulus

Naturally elicits a response
VI schedule
Variable Interval

The third strongest partial reinforcement schedule
VR schedule
Variable Ratio

A ratio of changing response numbers to reinforcement.

VR3 = On average, the number of responses is three, but it changes from trial to trial.
forward delay paradigm
CS comes on first, then a delay before the US comes on. They overlap for a period of time.

The stimuli end at the same time

Rapid learning and strong responses
backward delay paradigm
US comes on first, with a delay until the CS starts, overlapping until they end at the same time.

Doesn't work that well and learning is not as rapid
forward trace
CS starts and stops. Then US starts and stops.

Works but needs more time.
backward trace
US starts and stops. Then CS starts and stops.

Least effective.
Tolman, Richie and Kalish
Space learning and S-R free learning.
Space learning
Rats in a maze went to the same spacial orientation in a different maze.
Breland and Breland
Instinctive drift

Proved that nativism is valid
Linguist interested in language productivity.

Said that people do not generate new speech acts due to reinforcement.

Proved rationalism is valid
Levin and Banaji
Simultaneous brightness contrast

Proved that stimuli are subjective. Context influences perception
Had a chimp colony.

Proved that insight learning, learning without a prior experience, exists.
T test chambers

Found that the rats were creating and testing hypotheses.

Said that hypothetical constructs were neccessary
Garcia and Koelling
Taste aversion
Taste aversion
Animal will avoid the food just after one pairing.

Single trial learning which is also resistant to extinction.
Operational definition
How to define abstract concepts and the method of evaluation.

A way of objectively defining methods of investigation such as memory