Cognitive Psychology And Short-Term Memory

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Cognitive psychology is a branch of psychology with mental processes such as perception, thinking, learning, and memory. The first recognition of the field of cognitive psychology was George Mandler, in 1964 upon creating a facility known as the Center for Human Information Processing (Kiderra, 2016). The “cognitive revolution” fifty years ago sparked new ideas about the way people thought about the mind. Without cognitive psychology, psychologists would still believe the brain was a random mass of tissue that could not be understood, rather than an organic computer filled with important databases.
Perception, attention, language, memory, and metacognition are the five processes cognitive psychologists are interested in during their studies.
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To the contrary of common beliefs, short-memory lasts only a mere 12 to 30 seconds long (Ciccarelli & White, 2010). The series of experiments done by Bradley and Hitch in 1976 concluded that short-term memory is part of a memory system where a learning capacity can be divided between processing and storing important information. In 1980, Daneman and Carpenter experimented with the processing of reading sentences while storing information. The test subjects were told to remember the last word of each sentence. This study concluded that reading spans are better predictors at comprehension than that of working memory. Turner and Engle conducted a similar experiment to Daneman and Carpenter’s. They tested the operational span while storing important information. The goal was to solve a series of simple math problems while remembering a word following the completed math problem was the goal. In counting span, the target is to count the number of specific objects in a series of displays, while remembering the numbers of each display. Shah and Miyake launched the idea of special span, where a series of letters or numbers are shown in a reflected or rotated image while remembering the physical alignment of the digit or …show more content…
It is how people have learned to understand the world through series of stimuli. Early psychologists such as Edward Titchener began to work in the field of perception in his structuralist approach in psychology. Structuralism involved the interest of decreasing human by gaining a basic understanding of how individuals interpret certain stimuli. Current studies on perception within cognitive psychology is focused on how the mind interprets stimuli from the senses, and how those senses affect behavior. Psychologists as a whole have had an interest in the cognitive processes that enable language for over a century. Studies of language in the cognitive perspective is widely varied. Current cognitive psychologists may study language acquisition, components of language format, and how the use of emotions is in language. Language acquisition is significantly being studied in regards to children to determine whether or not a child has a learning

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