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88 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Memory for dated events in a person's life. This type of memory is a type of episodic memory.
Autobiographical memory
An explanation for the reminiscence bump, which states that memories are better for adolescence and early adulthood because encoding is better during periods of rapid change that are followed by stability.
Cognitive hypothesis
The creation of outlandish false memories. These are associated with damage to the prefrontal, and sometimes temporal, lobes.
An event that has important consequences for a person's life. It has been hypothesized that this quality is a characteristic of events that become flashbulb memories.
The tendency for people to perceive their basic attitudes and behaviors as remaining fairly consistent over time. This bias can affect people's memory for events in their lives.
Consistency Bias
The idea that what people report as memories are constructed by the person based on what actually happened plus additional factors, such as expectations, other knowledge, and other life experiences.
Constructive Approach to Memory
The tendency for people to see themselves in the best possible light. This bias can affect people's memory for events in their lives.
Egocentric bias
As proposed by Conway, individual events in a person's life that happen on a time scale of minutes or hours.
Event-specific knowledge
Testimony by eyewitnesses to a crime about what they saw during commission of the crime.
Eyewitness testimony
Memories of emotionally charged or especially memorable events that have been claimed to be particularly vivid and accurate.
Flashbulb Memories
As proposed by Conway, events in a person's life that happens over days, weeks, or months
General Events
The process by which people reach conclusions based on incomplete or partial information.
An explanation for the reminiscence bump, which states that memories are better for adolescence and early adulthood because people assume their life identities during that time.
Life-narrative hypothesis
As proposed by Conway, events in a person's life that span many years.
Lifetime periods
The explanation of the misinformation effect that states that misleading postevent information impairs or replaces the memories that were formed during the original experiencing of an event.
Memory Impairment Hypothesis
Occurs when misleading information presented after a person witnesses an event can change how that person describes the event later.
Misinformation effect
The misleading information that causes the misinformation effect.
Misleading postevent information (MPI)
The idea that we remember some life events better because we rehearse them. This idea was proposed by Neisser as an explanation for "flashbulb" memories.
Narrative rehearsal hypothesis
The tendency for people to perceive that 'things are getting better.'
Positive-change bias
A term used to refer to the situation in which memories of traumatic experiences, such as childhood abuse, are recalled after many years during which the person was not aware of these memories. The idea that these memories are repressed due to a special mechanism is controversial; many psychologists interpret this effect in terms of normal mechanisms of forgetting and remembering. What kind of memories are these?
Recovered memory
The empirical finding that people over 40 years old have enhanced memory for events from adolescence and early adulthood, compared to other periods of their lives.
Reminiscence bump
A method of measuring memory in which a person recalls a stimulus on repeated occasions so his or her memory is tested at longer and longer intervals after the original presentation of the material to be remembered.
Repeated reproduction
A person's knowledge about what is involved in a particular experience. For example, a person's knowledge about what usually is inside a dentist's office.
A type of schema. The conception of the sequence of actions that describe a particular activity. For example, the sequence of events that are associated with going to class would be a 'going to class'
Errors of source monitoring in which people attribute something they remember to the wrong source.
Source Misattribution
The process by which people determine the origins of memories, knowledge, or beliefs. Remembering that you heard about something from a particular person
Source Monitoring
A situation that occurs in which eyewitnesses to a crime tend to focus attention on a weapon, which causes poorer memory for other things that are happening.
Weapons focus
In Rosch's categorization scheme, the level below the superordinate level that would correspond to table or chair for the superordinate category of furniture. According to Rosch, this level is psychologically special because it is the level above which much information is lost and below which little is gained.
Basic level
The process by which objects are placed in categories.
Groups of objects that belong together because they belong to the same class of objects, such as "houses," "furniture," or "schools."
A feature of some semantic network models in which properties of a category that are shared by many members of a category are stored at a higher-level node in the network. For example, the property can fly would be stored at the node for bird rather than at the node for canary.
Cognitive economy
A mental representation used for a variety of cognitive functions, including memory, reasoning, and using and understanding language. An example of a concept would be the way a person mentally represents "cat" or "house."
Concept or Node
The idea that we can decide if something is member of a category by determining whether the object meets the definition of the category.
Definitional approach to categorization
In categorization, members of a category that a person has experienced in the past.
The approach to categorization in which members of a category are judged against exemplars, which are examples of members of the category that the person has encountered in the past.
Exemplar approach to categorization
In considering the process of categorization, the idea of __________ states that things in a particular category resemble each other in a number of ways.
Family resemblance
Organization of categories in which larger, more general categories are divided into smaller, more specific categories. These smaller categories can, in turn, be divided into even more specific categories to create a number of levels.
Hierarchical organization
A category member that closely resembles the category prototype. "A sparrow is a bird"
High Prototypicality
A procedure in which a person is asked to decide as quickly as possible, whether a particular stimulus is a word or a nonword.
Lexical-decision task
A category member that does not resemble the category prototype. "A penguin is a bird."
Low Prototypicality
A standard used in categorization that is formed by averaging the category members a person has encountered in the past.
This approach to categorization which is the idea that we decide whether something is a member of a category by determining whether it is similar to a standard representation of the category called a prototype.
Prototype approach to categorization
The degree to which a particular member of a category matches the prototype for that category.
The approach to concepts in which concepts are arranged in networks that represent the way the concepts are organized in the mind.
Semantic network approach
A technique in which the participant is asked to indicate whether or not a particular sentence is true or false. For example, sentences like "an apple is a fruit" have been used in studies on categorization.
Sentence-verification technique
Activity that spreads out along any link in a network that is connected to an activated node.
Spreading activation
The level in Rosch's categorization scheme that is a level below the basic level, and so would correspond to kitchen table for the basic category of table.
Subordinate Level
The highest level in Rosch's categorization scheme that corresponds to general categories such as furniture or vehicles.
Superordinate Level
The ability to judge the truth or falsity of sentences involving high-prototypical members of a category more rapidly than sentences involving low-prototypical members of a category.
Typicality effect
A condition associated with brain damage in which a person can see an object but cannot name the object.
Visual agnosia
A hypothesis associated with Paivio's dual coding theory that states that concrete nouns create images that other words can hang onto, and that this enhances memory for these words.
Conceptual-peg hypothesis
Corresponds to spatial representation. So called because a spatial representation can be depicted by a picture.
Depictive representation
A theory proposed by Paivio that memory is served by two systems, one that is specialized for verbal stimuli, and the other that is specialized for objects and events that are represented non-verbally.
Dual-coding theory
A phenomenon that accompanies a mechanism, but is not actually part of the mechanism. An example of this is lights that flash on a mainframe computer as it operates.
A procedure in which a person creates a mental image and then scans the image in his or her mind.
Image scanning
The debate about whether thought was possible in the absence of images.
Imageless-thought debate
The debate about whether imagery is based on spatial mechanisms such as those involved in perception, or on propositional mechanisms that are related to language.
Imagery debate
A type of category-specific neuron is activated by imagery.
Imagery neurons
Part of the visuospatial sketch pad in the updated version of the working memory model that is responsible that for manipulating images that are in the visual buffer.
Inner Scribe
Experiencing a sensory impression in the absence of sensory input.
Mental imagery
A process in which patterns are created by manipulating mental images.
Mental synthesis
A task used in imagery experiments in which participants are asked to form a mental image of an object and to imagine that they are walking toward this mental image.
Mental-walk task
A method for remembering things in which things to be remembered are placed at different locations in a mental image of a spatial layout.
Method of loci
Learning that occurs when a participant is presented with pairs of words during a study period and then is tested when one of the words is presented and the task is to recall the other word.
Paired-associate learning
A method for remembering things in which the things to be remembered are associated with concrete words.
Pegword technique
A representation in which relationships are represented by symbols, as when the words of language represent objects and the relationships between objects.
Propositional representation
A representation in which different parts of an image can be described as corresponding to specific locations in space.
Spatial representation
An explanation proposed to account for the results of some imagery experiments that states that participants unconsciously use knowledge about the world in making their judgments. This explanation has been used as one of the arguments against describing imagery as a depictive or spatial representation.
Tacit-knowledge explanation
Part of the visuospatial sketch pad in the updated version of the working memory model, which is responsible for our conscious experience of images
Visual buffer
A type of mental imagery involving vision, in which an image is experienced in the absence of a visual stimulus.
Visual imagery
War of Ghosts Experiment, What did the canoes and seal hunting become?
Boats and sailing expedition
War of Ghosts: What happened to the stories and what can be interpreted?
Stories got shorter, and we recognize culture as having a major effect on memory construction
A special memory mechanism that acts like a camera to record details in certain emotional situations.
Now Print
Challenger Disaster: What did they report 1 day after and 2.5 years after?
Day After Disaster: 20% of people reported they first heard about it on the television. 2 ½ Years Later: 45% of people claimed they heard about it on television.
Kathy Pezdek: 09/11 Interviews with HW, CA, NY: On 09/11 did you see the video of the first plane hit the tower?
75% Recall yes (false memory)
Car Crash Experiment: What were the two groups, and what were the results?
Bumped Group: 30mph. Smashed said 40. Smashed was also likely to see broken glass.
You see the original information, then external information goes into the memory (smash), then new memory forms with both. The original memory is replaced or altered by the new memory. MPI replaced memories that formed during the event.
Memory Impairment Hypothesis
Stolen Calculater experiment. There was an MPI group and Control group. What tool did they claim they saw the mechanic put the stolen calculator under and what did this show?
75% of both groups picked hammer, and this showed the memory impairment hypothesis to be false.
Lost in a Mall Study. How many participants had full or partial memory of the fabricated event and what did this show?
6 and it showed that entire false memories can be implanted through suggestion.
Specific characteristics of concepts or nodes
Out of these 2 sentences, which was verified faster and why?

A canary is a bird. A canary is an animal
A canary is a bird was faster because it was only 1 node away.
High frequency terms verified faster than low frequency terms. A dog is an animal is faster than A dog is a mammal.
Familiarity effect
Not all members of a category are typical. Some have a lower degree of association. Canary is more typically thought of for bird, in comparison to penguin which is not.
Typicallity Effects
In semantic memory each concept has a list of features which defines the concept. The retrieval of a concept is based upon the overlap of these features.
Feature overlap model
Feature Overlap Model. These are essential to the concepts definition "Has wings, or feathers."
Defining Features
Feature Overlap Model. These are typical features. "Is small, eats"•
Characteristic Features
Information prior to a task or test presented explicitly or implicitly has an effect on later performance: Prior exposure to nurse will lead to fast RT to “Is doctor a real word?”
Priming Effects
This explains that imagery is like perception and it retains some of the sensory qualities (spatial layout) of perception.
Analogical Representation