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57 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What is cognitive psychology?
Cognitive psychology is the study of how we perceive, learn, remember, and think about information
knowledge attained through observation
knowledge attained through logical analysis/introspection
Who are the rationalists?
Descartes- "cogito ergo sum" - I think therefore I am

Kant - Synthesized rationalism and empiricism and said they are both necessary and important in obtaining information
Who are the empiricists?
John Locke - believed in "Tabula Rasa" (blank slate) He believed we all start out as blank slates and write onto them through knowledge we obtain through direct observation.
Who is cognitive psychology traced back to?
Ulric Neisser (1967) who published the first Cognitive Psychology book
Plato's "aviary metaphor" and "cave allegory"
Aviary Metaphor - our memories are like birds in a cage that flock together. Once you activate one memory, related memories become available to become activated.
Cave Metaphor - we perceive shadows of what reality is
believed the source of knowledge is sensation
Who opposed Plato's view?
understand the mind's structure by analyzing it's elements
Who is "The Father of Scientific Psychology" and what did he do?
Wilhelm Wundt - founded first psychology lab, used introspection(studied himself) to study behavior
seeks to understand the processes rather than the content of thought
William James is associated with...
William James
helped develop the functionalist thought to combat the introspection method
stresses that the focus should be on ONLY the relation between observable behavior and stimuli/events
Thorndike - "Law of Effect"
when you are rewarded for a behavior you learn it faster.
Satisfaction = reward
-Satisfaction is the key to forming associations
Radical Behaviorism
Classical Conditioning, involuntary learning with dogs
examines events or ideas and how they become associated with one another in the mind as a form of learning
Father of Memory Research
Herman Ebbinghaus
What are the three areas of influence for Modern Cognitive Psychology?
1. Human Factors - study of human skills and performance

2. Computer Science and A.I. - the machine metaphor of cognition

3. Linguistics
What is the purpose of the Peripheral Nervous System (PNS) ?
handles the input and output to and from the brain (its the interface between the brain and the rest of the body)
What are the two parts of the PNS?
1. The Somatic Division
2. The Autonomic Division
Autonomic Division
regulates the internal organs and glands (heart, lungs, stomach)
Somatic Division
- controls skeletal muscles and permits voluntary action
- receives info from skin and muscles and conveys info to the brain
What are the two parts of the autonomic division?
1) Sympathetic System: controls bodily functions in emergency situations
2) Parasympathetic System: active all of the other times, for your idle processes
Central Nervous System
- contains the brain and spinal cord
- interprets sensory info and sends out appropriate commands to the muscles, glands, and internal organs.
-regulates all bodily functions
- controls our most primitive behaviors (eating, sleeping, biological response to keeping warm, etc)
- also responsible for our most sophisticated behaviors (creating music, arts, poetry, science, language)
the brain
What are the contents of the Hindbrain?
- reticular activating system
- cerebellum
- pons
- medulla
What are the contents of the Forebrain?
-Limbic System
-Cerebral Cortex
relay station between hindbrain and forebrain
- all info going into the brain must pas through the midbrain
The left hemisphere of the cerebral cortex is associated with ....

The right hemisphere of the cerebral cortex is associated with ....
left hemisphere - language
right hemisphere - visual/spatial
What are the left and right hemispheres of the brain connected by?
the corpus callosum
the left half of the brain controls the right half of the body, and the right half of the brain controls the left half of the body.
The same side of the brain controls the same side of the body
Most functions are _____/_____lateral?
What are the four lobes of the cerebral cortex and what are they associated with?
1) Occipital Lobe - vision
2) Parietal Lobe - body perceptions
3) Frontal Lobe - motor activity, higher cognitive function, emotion
4) Temporal Lobe - audition
cell, contains nucleus, connects dendrites to the axon
branch like structures that receive messages from axons and delivers them to the soma
sends messages to other neurons
Sensory Neurons
special neurons that delivers messages from the body to the central nervous system
Motor Neurons
special neurons that send messages from the CNS to muscles and glands
the "in-betweens"; how motor and sensory neurons communicate
gap between the axon of sending neuron and the dendrites of the receiving neuron
What are the three important neurotransmitters?
1) acetylcholine
2) dopamine
3) seratonin
Learning and Memory
mezzi (pl.) di trasporto
means of transportation
Arousal, Sleep, mood, sensitivity to Pain
ERPS (Event Related Potentials)
electrical patterns of the brain are time-locked to some extent

(best temporal resolution, poor spatial resolution -tells you when activity occurs, not where)

An event-related potential (ERP) is any measured brain response that is directly the result of a thought or perception.
PET(Positron Emission Tomography)
radiological tag is attached to glucose to measure the active part of the brain. (poor temporal resolution, better spatial resolution - tells you where, not when)
fMRI Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging
resolution measures oxygen consumption in active parts of the brain by differentiating between oxyhemoglobin and deoxy hemoglobin
- best spatial resolution... 3d image.
- the means by which we actively process a limited amount of info from the enormous amount of info available through our senses, our stored memories & other cognitive processes

- includes both conscious and unconscious processes
the feeling of awareness and the content of awareness
Preconscious Processing / level of awareness
information that is currently available for cognitive processing but that currently lies outside conscious awareness exists at this level.
-includes stored memories that aren't being used at a given time but can be summoned when needed
recognition of certain stimuli is affected by prior presentation of the same or similar stimuli
What are the three functions of attention?
1)Signal Detection - detect appearance of a certain stimulus
2) Selective Attention
3) Divided Attention
Signal Detection Theory
Make detection judgments based on inconclusive information with some criteria for target decisions (See/memorize chart in notes)