The psychologies of the 19th century such as phrenology, physiognomy, mesmerism, spiritualist, and mental healers were very popular and the public strongly believed in their teachings and practices. Phrenology used the cranial measurement to identify the talents and dispositions of individuals. Physiognomy evaluated a person’s character, intellect, and abilities based on facial features, such as eyes, nose, chin, and forehead as the principal indicators. Mesmerism believed that fluids in the body were magnetized and through …show more content…
What was the main criticism of Freud’s theory as identified by the neo-Freudians? How did the neo-Freudians work to address this criticism? Identify the key components of humanistic theory. Compare and contrast psychoanalytic theory and humanistic theory.
Psychoanalysis could be argued to be one of the most pivotal influences on psychology. It has expanded the growth of psychology as a science, but not without a few limitations. To really grasp its value, we have to understand Freud’s theory, the criticism, and how it compares with the humanistic theory of psychology.
Psychoanalysis insisted on representing psychological sciences through consciousness through the study of the unconscious. Freud’s theory of psychoanalysis begins with the portions that make up the normal mind: id, ego, and superego. According to Freud, the mind also contained a pleasure seeking energy called libido, which he viewed as a sexual based energy. It was mainly through his clinical cases of hysteria, including the famous case of Anna O. that he established his theory of neuroses; in which neuroses was found to be associated with anxiety, defense mechanisms and childhood sexuality. His methods of treatment included free association and dream …show more content…
It has also expanded the growth of psychology as a science, but also with a few limitations. To really grasp its value, we have to understand Watson’s theory, neo-behaviorist, socio-behaviorism, and the criticism that lead to cognitive movements.
Watson founded his theory of behaviorism through comparative psychology. The theoretical goal of behaviorism was the prediction and control of behavior. His method included objective forms of observation without the use of scientific instruments. He preferred classical conditioning, which he demonstrated to be effective in the case of Little Albert. It provided proof that it was possible to condition a fear to an object that previously had not been feared.
Neo-behaviorist Hull, Tolman, and Skinner offered individual competing theories of behaviorism. Tolman viewed behavior as purposeful reasoning and did not agree with reinforcements as an essential for learning. Hull agreed with reinforcements and their influence on habits. Skinner’s theology was known as radical behaviorism, as it disagreed the psychic methods of cognitive psychology. His methods agreed with Hull’s reinforcement and ultimately improved the reliability of Watson’s prediction and control of behavior through arithmetic and his classifications of different forms of