Characteristics Of Phrenology

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Discuss the services provided by phrenology, physiognomy, mesmerism, spiritualist, and mental healer. Identify what aspects of these pseudosciences are similar in some way to what professionals psychologist provide today.
The psychologies of the 19th century such as phrenology, physiognomy, mesmerism, spiritualist, and mental healers were very popular and the public strongly believed in their teachings and practices. Phrenology used the cranial measurement to identify the talents and dispositions of individuals. Physiognomy evaluated a person’s character, intellect, and abilities based on facial features, such as eyes, nose, chin, and forehead as the principal indicators. Mesmerism believed that fluids in the body were magnetized and through
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Spiritualist believed in the communication with the dead through séance participation provided by a medium to receive guidance from the non-living. Mental healers believed the cure for diseases resided in the mental powers of the individual and not in the medical practices of the physician. Early psychologist withdrew from phrenology and physiognomy that their practices provided careful observation as part of the therapeutic process and insight. Franz Mesmer might not have been entirely wrong, as Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (TMS) has recently been used to provide electromagnetic current to a patients’ head in order to evaluate the connection between the brain and muscles. TMS has been found useful in migraines and major depressive disorder. While the paranormal claims of spiritualism were never scientifically proven, mental healing can be found to be relevant to a majority of all the practices of modern psychology. Cognitive Behavior Therapy (CBT) is a …show more content…
How did the second wave (neo-behaviorist Tolman, Hull, and Skinner) change behaviorist theory? How did the third wave (socio-behaviorism, Bandura, and Rotter) further influence behaviorism? What were the main criticisms of the behaviorism theory as identified by the beginning of the cognitive movements?
Behaviorism could be argued as the second most pivotal influences on psychology. It has also expanded the growth of psychology as a science, but also with a few limitations. To really grasp its value, we have to understand Watson’s theory, neo-behaviorist, socio-behaviorism, and the criticism that lead to cognitive movements.
Watson founded his theory of behaviorism through comparative psychology. The theoretical goal of behaviorism was the prediction and control of behavior. His method included objective forms of observation without the use of scientific instruments. He preferred classical conditioning, which he demonstrated to be effective in the case of Little Albert. It provided proof that it was possible to condition a fear to an object that previously had not been

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