Psychoanalysis As A Science Or Pseudoscience

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There has been an ongoing debate among academics questioning whether psychoanalysis is a science or pseudoscience. This essay examines psychoanalysis as a science because it influences psychology literature. Secondly, the essay discusses objectives that illustrate that psychoanalysis is a science such as (1) therapeutic efficacy (psychotherapy), (2) observations which are used mostly in case studies and (3) interpretation. Furthermore, it explains how scholars oppose that psychoanalysis is not a science.

Psychoanalysis initiated by Sigmund Fred (1856) can be defined as a treatment that utilises techniques in the form examining an individual’s emotion using the unconscious mind, as well as an understanding of an individual’s mental being
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(ref) This is through methods of observations and case studies. However, scholars have argued that certain aspects of psychoanalysis are not scientific. For instance, empirical evidence from research carried out by _________ shows that psychoanalysis is not a science. According to P ( ), historical empirical evidence conducted by Freud indicates that results of the Oedipus complex have been generalised. This is shown because the Oedipus case study only explains meanings about itself. In addition, the case of Anna O by Freud and Breuer ( ) fails to meet the criteria of science because it cannot be tested. testability. However, Hinshelwood (2010) points out that single cases studies can be tested. Some academics argue that psychoanalysis is not a science because it cannot be falsified. Popper points out that the methodology of psychoanalysis does not fit the criteria of being scientific.

Psychologists use information to replicate their studies to make sure that the results attainted are not by chance. This is by justifying the results of a research and replicating the studies using different methods so that the hypothesis becomes a theory Comer et al. (2013). Researchers use a set of principles and methods to draw up a theory which can be tested by developing a study and collecting data.

However, (Valentine, 1991)
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This can be considered as an aspect that suggests that psychoanalysis is a science. For example, Tonge et al. (2009) conducted a naturalistic longitudinal study. The objective of the survey was to research the effectiveness of treatment methods in people that had reduced signs and others who had an increase regarding mental functioning. This study involved 80 participants who were children and adolescents. They measured depressive symptoms as well as attention problems. Results of this study suggest that psychoanalytic therapy is an effective treatment for reasons that there was a massive reduction in the depressive symptoms and attention problems. Children and adolescents improved after 12 months. Similarly, an open clinical trial conducted by Rohricht et al. (2011) also supports the effectiveness of psychotherapy despite having a small sample. However, other types of therapies may be considered as effective treatments of psychotherapy that can be used to treat disorders and mental illnesses. For instance, Bateman & Fonagy (2004) point out that Mentalised Based Therapy (MBT) supports evidence that other psychological treatments which are scientific are likely to be more beneficial than psychoanalysis. Bateman & Fonagy (2004) claim that the purpose of MBT is to comprehend improvement after organising personal effectiveness of an individual’s mind. Similarly, Steensel et al. (2015) further support that Cognitive

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