Compare And Contrast Cognitive And Cognitive Theory

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In this paper I will describe and contrast two of the major theories in psychology, the Psychoanalytical Theory and the Cognitive Theory. I personally believe that an integration between them would best suit my future approach to counseling. Therefore I will present the main theoretical concepts and psychotherapeutic techniques, and their differences and similarities in order to understand to what extent they can be integrated.
Sigmund Freud, the founder and major exponent of Psychoanalytical Theory firmly believed that that experiences in childhood play a crucial part in development and personality, influencing adult functioning. He expressed that a person is driven by urges that emanate from the unconscious, leading them to repeat patterns
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Ellis and Beck are two of the main exponents of the Cognitive Theory, which focuses on how a person’s perceptions and thoughts affect the way they feel and behave, hence prolonged maladaptive thinking can lead to abnormal behaviour, psychological problems and human suffering. Maladaptive thinking includes negative thoughts and irrational beliefs. These distorted thoughts usually happen automatically and without the person being fully aware of them.
The Cognitive Theory explains that cognitive disorders have been learned, and, therefore, they can be unlearned. These thoughts can be monitored, evaluated and altered. People can learn to challenge their faulty cognitions and self-defeating thoughts. In this way, the approach assumes cognitive change will lead to changes in
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The purpose of the Psychoanalytical therapy, the Psychoanalysis, is insight. It deals with the unconscious, encouraging the client to uncover the past in order to bring memory to significant events and understand unresolved conflicts. In contrast, the purpose of the Cognitive Therapy is to help the client change their behavior by recognizing negative thought patterns and learning new ways of thinking in order to find solutions to current problems. It focuses on the conscious, the here and now.
The key therapeutic interventions used in Psychoanalysis are free association, interpretation, analysis of transference, resistance and dreams, and projective tests (e.g. TAT, Rorschach Inkblot Test, human figure drawings). On the other hand, in Cognitive Therapy, the techniques used could be forceful disputing, reality testing, chasing cognitive distortions, and identifying automatic thoughts. Unlike Psychoanalysis, Cognitive Therapy is directive and goal oriented and does not look at the client’s past, which some people may consider a disadvantage arguing that if the root of the problem is not treated, the symptom or behavior will eventually reoccur. Likewise, in Psychoanalysis there is a danger that the client could become dependent on their therapist whereas in Cognitive Therapy the client is taught to be

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