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78 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back

Analogical Encoding

The process by which two problems are compared and similarities between them determined

Analogical Paradox

While people routinely use analogies in the real world, it is difficult to apply analogies in lab research

Analogical Problem Solving

1) Noticing
2) Mapping
3) Applying

Analogical Transfer

Transfer from one problem to another
Target Problem
Source Problem


Candle Problem

Duncker's Candle Problem
Matchbox can be used as a support rather than a container
Subjects presented empty matchboxes twice as likely to find solution
See functional fixedness

Creative Cognition

Method of individual idea generation

Training people to think creatively


Divergent Thinking

Thinking that is open-ended and involves a large number of potential "solutions"
Creative Problem solving


People who have devoted a large amount of time to learning about a field and practicing and applying that learning


Tendency to focus on specific characteristic of a problem


Gestalt psychology

Insight Problems

Functional Fixedness

Fixation focusing on familiar functions or uses of an object

Candle Problem

Goal State

Solution to a problem
Towers of Hanoi
Information Processing Approach

Group Brainstorming

Preconceptions can inhibit creativity. This technique encourages free expression of ideas

Creative Problem Solving

In vivo problem-solving research

Observing people solve problems in real world situations

Analogical paradox

Initial State

Conditions at the beginning of a problem
Towers of Hanoi Problem
Information-Processing Approach


Associated with restructuring

The sudden realization of a problem's solution

Gestalt Psychology

Intermediate States

State between initial and goal states


Towers of Hanoi

Information Processing Approach

Latent Inhibition (LI)

The capacity to screen out irrelevant stimuli.

Creative and mentally ill people have low latent inhibition

Savant Syndrome

Means-end analysis

Way of solving a problem in which goal is to reduce the difference between initial and goal states

Information Processing Approach
Towers of Hanoi

Mental set

Preconceived notion about how to approach a problem. Determined by experience and what has worked in the past.

See water jug problem

Mutilated checkerboard problem

Correct problem representation is the key to successful problem solving


Actions that take a problem from one state to another

Towers of Hanoi
Information Processing Approach

Preinventive forms

Ideas the precede the creation of a finished creative product

Creative PRoblem solving


Occurs when there is an obstacle between a present state and a goal, and it is not immediately obvious how to get around the obstacle

Problem Space

All possible states that could occur while solving a problem

Information Processing approach

Radiation PRoblem

Karl Duncker

Multiple low-power beans intersecting at tumor site; analogous to attacking fortress from many sides

Analogical problem solving


Changing the problem's representation

Gestalt approach
Circle problem

Savant syndrome

People with autism and other mental disorders are able to achieve extraordinary feats; possibly the result of top-down inhibition being lower

Creative Problem Solving

Source Problem

Problem that shares similarities with target problem

Analogical transfer

Structural features

Underlying principles that govern the solution

Analogical trnasfer


Small goals that help create intermediate states closer to the goal

Information Processing Approach

Surface Features

Specific elements of a problem (such as rays and the tumor)

Analogical Transfer

Target Problem

Problem subject is trying to solve
Analogical transfer

Think-aloud protocol

Subjects asked to say aloud what they are thinking while solving a problem

Mutilated checkerboard problem
Kaplan and Simon

Tower of Hanoi Problem

Newell and Simon


Initial state

Goal state


Two-string problem

See functional fixedness


Subjects asked to tie together two strings hanging from the ceiling

Water jug problem


See mental set


The process of making choices between alternatives


The process of drawing conclusions (based on evidence)

Inductive Reasoning

Reasoning based on evidence

Reaching conclusions from evidence


"rule of thumb" that approximates a correct answer, but is not foolproof

Availability Heuristic

events that are more easily remembered are judged as being more probable


Lichtenstein causes of death

Illusory Correlations

correlation between two events appears to exist, but in reality there is no correlation or only a weak one


Oversimplified generalization about a group or class of people (often focusing on negative)

Representativeness Heuristic

Probability that A is a member of class B can be determined by how well A represents the properties typically associated with class B


Judging Occupations

Base rate

relative proportion of different classes in the population


Representative heuristic

Judging occupations

Conjunction Rule

The probability of a conjunction of two events cannot be higher than the probability of the constituents

e.g. Probability of person being bank teller >= probability of person being feminist bank teller

Law of Large Numbers

The larger the number of individuals randomly drawn from population, the more representative the resulting group

Myside Bias

Tendency for people to generate and evaluate evidence and test hypotheses in a way that is biased toward opinions and attitudes.

A type of confirmation bias

Confirmation Bias

Information is favored that confirms a hypothesis

Expected Utility Theory

Proposes that people are fundamentally rational actors seeking to maximize their utility


outcomes that achieve a person's goals

Expected Emotions

Emotions that people predict theyw ill feel for a particular outcome

Risk Aversion

tendency to avoid taking risks

Incidental Emotions

Emotions not caused by having to make a decision, but still affecting it.

Opt-in procedure

Requires a person to take active step

Opt-out procedure

Person must act to be excluded

Status quo bias

tendency to do nothing when faced with making a decision

Risk Aversion Strategy

Trying to maximize positive outcome

Risk taking strategy

Trying to minimize negative outcome

Framing effect

decisions influenced by how choices are presented


study of how brain activation is related to decisions involving potential gains or losses

Ultimatum Game

proposer and responder

both win or both lose

Deductive Reasoning

determining whether conclusion logically follows from statements called premises


See deductive reasoning


Two premises followed by a third statement called a conclusion

See Deductive Reasoning

Categorical Syllogism

Premises and conlcusions begin with All, No, or Some


Syllogism is internally consistent

Belief bias

tendency to think a syllogism is valid if conclusion believable

Mental Model Approach

using mental imagery to solve a problem

Mental model

specific situation represented in a person's mind that can be used to help determine the validity of syllogisms in deductive reasoning

Conditional Syllogisms

Have two premises and a conlcusion, where the first premise has the form if...then

Wason Four-card problem

Research example of conditional reasoning

See falsification principle

Falsification principle

To test a rule, it is necessary to look for situations that would falsify the rule

Permission Schema

if a person satisfies a particular condition, then he gets to carry out an action

Evolutionary Perspective on Cognition

We can trace many properties of our minds to the principles of natural selection

Social Exchange Theory

important aspect of human behavior is ability of people to cooperate

Dual systems approach

there are two mental systems:

1) fast, automatic, intuitive

2) thoughtful, deliberative

See bat and ball example