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69 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
process of putting things into mental categories, a set of items to which we apply the same label
a mental representation of the category and its members, describes what the members look like and how they act, etc
Functions of categories
help us understand individual cases we have never seen before or bizarre behaviors
Definitional approach
categorization; Deciding whether something is a memberof a category by determining whether the object meets the definition of the category. Works well for somethings like geometric objects but does not work for more advanced things
Family resemblance
Categorization; The idea that things in a particular category resemble one another in a number of ways, allows for variation within a category
Prototype Approach
categorization; membership in a category is determined by comparing the object to a prototype, a "typical" member of a category, that represents the category.
Variations within a category; High prototypicality means that a category member closely resembles the prototype of the category; Low prototypicality means the category member does not closely resemble the prototype
People react rapidly to members of a category that are "typical" of the category
People are more likely to list some objects(high prototypicality) than others(low prototypicality) when asked to name objects in a category
Presentation of one stimulus affects responses to a stimulus that follows
Exemplar Approach
Categorization; Determining if an object is similar to a standard object but involves many objects, exemplars, instead of just the "typical" object; works best for small categories, takes into account individual cases and doesn't discard information that may be useful later, for example- some birds are flightless like penguins
Members of a category that you have encountered in the past
Hierarchical Organization
Organization in which larger, more general categories are divided into smaller, more specific categories, creating a number of levels of categories( global, basic, and specific-level)
Global Level
Superordinate level; very general descriptions like furniture
Basic Level
Categories within global levels, what we rely on most as opposed to other levels(like table)
Special because going above it to global results in a large loss of info and going below it to specific results in little gain of info, basic names are also used to identify objects ex:piano instead of grand piano, basic level names are more likely to produce a semantic priming effect
Specific Level
Very precise and specific labels like kitchen table
People with expertise in a particular category tend to use specific level names
Semantic Network Approach
Categories and concepts are arranged in networks that represent the way categories and concepts are organized in the mind, based on a computer model
Collins and Quillian's network
Consists of nodes that represent a category or concept and are connected by links to related concepts which are connected to properties associated with each concept at the nodes. Each link indicates they are related in the mind
Cognitive economy
Shared properties in Collins and Quillian's network are stored at higher level nodes. Ex: can fly and has feathers is at the node for bird and not at each individual type of bird
Spreading Activation
Activity that spreads out along any link that is connected to an activated node. Concepts that receive activation become primes and are accessed more easily from memory.
Lexical Decision Task
Showed 2 words or nonwords and asked if they were both words,Reaction time is faster when the two words are related then when they were weakly associated. This happened because retrieving one word from memory triggered a spread a spread of activation to other nearby locations in a network. More activation would spread to words that were related there was a faster reaction time
Typicality Effect
Reaction times for statements about an object are faster for more typical members of a category than for a less typical members; criticism of Collins and Quillian Model
Collins and Loftus Model
No hierarchical structure, based on experience meaning the spacing between various concepts can differ for various people depending on their experience with concpets. Used length of links to determine relatedness, concepts that are more closely related are connected by shorter links. ex: Vehicle has short links to car, truck, and bus but longer links to ambulance and fire engine
Connectionism or the Connectionist Approach
Created due to criticisms of semantic networks. Creating computer models for representing concepts and their properties based on characteristics of the brain
Parallel Distributed Processing (PDP) Models
A concept is represented by the pattern of activity distributed throughout a set a nodes; Connections weights(synaptic transmission) are adjusted through learning
Back Propagation
PDP model; Process by which error signals are sent back to the hidden and representation units to provide information about how the connection weights should be changed so that the correct property units will be activated
Graceful Degradation
Property in which disruption of performance occurs only gradually as parts of the system are damaged ; Operation of connectionist networks is not totally disrupted by damage
A system of communication using sounds or symbols that enables us to express our feelings, thoughts, ideas, and experiences.
Properties of language
1)Symbolic- letters and symbols make up words
2)Arbitrary- no definitive relationship between symbol and meaning
3)Dynamic- constantly changing
What makes human language unique?
It is hierarchical(consists of small units that must be rearranged to form larger units) and governed by rules(grammar)
which allows language to be productive meaning it can produce an infinite number of sounds, words, and sentences
Language Processes
Perception-how we identify words and parts of words as individual units
Comprehension-How we understand the meaning of words and sentences
Production- How we speak, write, and use language
Smallest sound that if changed changes a word's meaning.
ex: cat-3, book-3
Smallest units of language that have a meaning or a function; free morpheme-can stand alone; bound morpheme- can't stand alone
Phonemic Restoration Effect
Context(top-down processing) allows listeners to fill in missing sounds
Verbal Transformation Effect
an illusory change that occurs when an auditorily presented word is repeated for prolonged periods; Perceptions of phonemes become unstable
McGurk Effect
Perception of an intermediate phoneme when auditory and visual speech cues conflict; using visual cues to understand or aid what we hear
Phonemes differ depending on context
Speech Segmentation
We perceive individual words even though the speech signal is continuous
Word Superiority Effect
People are better at recognizing letters in words than letters presented by themselves or in nonwords. Recognizing a letter in a word used top down processing and recognizing a feature of a letter uses bottom up processing
Factors that influence our understanding of words
Word frequency-faster to recognize words with high frequency
Age of Acquisition- age you learn a word, words learned early in life are recognized faster
Imageability- words with images attached to them are recognized faster
Phonetic Ambiguity
homophones that sound the same but are spelled differently and have different meanings ex: bare and bear; ambiguous without context
Syntactic Ambiguity
Ambiguous without intonation
ex:Have the missionaries eaten
Lexical Ambiguity
Words that have more than one meaning; context can sometimes help ex: I have to go to the bank this morning, bank can have multiple meanings
Swinney: accessed both meanings of the word "bug" even though the context indicated it was an insect when there was no delay but with a brief delay participants chose the insect meanings, context helps determine appropriate meaning after delay
Meanings of words and sentences
Rules for combining words into sentences
Grouping words into phrases; figuring out who did what to whom and when; which words go together meaningfully while following the rules of syntax
Syntax-First Approach to Parsing
Syntax determines parsing, group phrases based on late closure
Late closure
When a person encounters a new word, the persons' paring mechanism assumes that this word is part of the current phrase, so each new word is added to the current phrase for as long as possible.
Interactionist Approach to Parsing
Semantics come into to play early as a sentence is being read; Parsing is influenced by the meanings of words or environmental setting
Levels of Text Representation
Surface- activation of the words
Textbase-Activation of the words and their meanings
Situation Model
Activation of the meaning of the text, along with inferences and ideas related to the text; mental representation of what the a text is about
Zwaan- read sentence then showed picture of the and indicated whether the picture was mentioned in the sentence, faster responses when the picture's shape matched teh sentence because the object's location in the sentence is brought into how we represent what we read, people activate perceptual symbols during sentence comprehension
Anaphoric Inference
Inferences that connect an object to person in one sentence or an object or person in another sentence
Instrument Inference
Inferences about tools or methods ex"William Shakespeare wrote Hamlet whiile he was sitting at his desk" we infer he was writing with a quill based on the time period
Causal Inference
Inferences that the events described in one clause or sentence were caused by the events that occurred in a previous sentence
Picture-Word Interference
Semantically related distractor slow picture naming, reflects competition for lexical selection(tiger and lion)
Phonologically related words speed picture naming, once lexical selection occurs, overlap in phonology facilitates phonological encoding(alimony and alligator)
Error Elicitation
Creates processing circumstances that lead to error
Errors in otherwise fluent speech, filled pauses(uh)
Slips of the Tongue
Sounds or entire words are rearranged between 2 or more different words
SLIP Paradigm
Had participants silently read successive pairs of words and then repeated target pairs aloud immediately after reading them (darn bore and desk bomb)Suggested that priming of a specific pattern of word onsets
Homophone Substitution Errors
Slips of the pen, A contextually appropriate word is replaced with its homophone ex meat vs meet
Given-New Contract
Semantic Coordination; The speaker should construct sentences so that they include given information, info the listener already knows, and new information, information that the listener is hearing for the first time
Syntactic Coordination
Uses syntactic priming-hearing a statement with a particular syntactic construction increases the chances a sentence will be produces with the same construction
The study of language and the brain
Broca's Aphasia
Damage to left frontal lobe; Can comprehend simple sentences but not complex grammatical sentences, production is slow and effortful with jumbled sentence structure; agrammatical
Wernicke's Aphasia
Damage to left temporal lobe; Severely impaired comprehension; Very fluent speech but lacks content and semantic comprehensibility
Single system hypothesis
Two lang are represented in one memory system
Dual system hypothesis
2 lang are represented by separate memory systems
Language Interference Hypothesis
Both of a bilingual's languages are active which results in constant interference from words in the non-used language
Weaker Links Hypothesis
Bilingual's access words in each of their languages less frequently and this reduced frequency of use weakens links