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77 Cards in this Set

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The process of transferring heat through matter by movement of the kinetic energy from one particle to another

Conduction

The column of hot gases, flames, and smoke rising above a fire; also called convection column, thermal draft or thermal column

Plume

Three phases of matter

Solid, liquid and gas

Transfer of heat through the emission of energy in the form of invisible waves

Radiation

The process in which oxygen combines chemically with another substance to create a new compound

Oxidation

The phase of fire where the fire is running out of fuel

Decay

Reactions that absorb heat or require heat to be added

Endothermic

Heat transfer by circulation within a medium such as a gas or liquid

Convection

A state of inadequate oxygenation of the blood and tissue

Hypoxia

Created by splitting the nucleus of an atom

Nuclear fission

Why does a thin piece of wood burns quickly?

Large surface area

Which class of fires involves ordinary combustibles such as wood?

Class A fires

What are the basic units of measure for fire behavior used in the United States?

British system of units

A very rapid chemical process that combines oxygen with another substance and results in the release of heat and light

Combustion

Which class fires involves flammable or combustible liquids such as gasoline?

Class B fires

What is the primary factor in upward fire spread?

Convection

The movement of heat through a fluid medium such as air or liquid

Convection

When hot gases flow across a ceiling and cooler air stays closer to the floor

Thermal layering

The lowest temperature at which a liquid produces a flammable vapor

Flash point

In which phase of fire does additional fuel become involved in the fire?

Growth phase

Which class of fires involves burning metals?

Class D fires

What are the basic units of measure in Canada?

International system of units

The decomposition of a material brought about by heat in the absence of oxygen

Pyrolysis

What does incomplete combustion produce?

Smoke

The weight of a gaseous fuel

Vapor density

What type of energy occurs when two materials rub together and produce friction?

Mechanical energy

The transfer of heat energy in the form of invisible waves

Radiation

What is represented by the four conditions that must be present for fire to take place?

Fire tetrahedron

What are the three major components of smoke?

1. Particles


2. Vapors


3. Gases

What is the key to preventing a BLEVE?

Cool the top of the tank

What is the actual material that is consumed by a fire?

Fuel

How does flammable limits vary?

Vary from one fuel to another one

Minimum amount of gaseous fuel that must be present in gas/air mixture for mixture to be flammable

Lower flammable limit

Minimum temperature that a substance should attain to ignite under specific test conditions

Ignition temperature

Minimum temperature of a liquid at which sufficient vapor is given off to form an ignitable mixture with air

Flash point

Explosion that occurs when tank containing volatile liquid at bottom of tank and a flammable gas at top of tank is heated to point where tank ruptures

BLEVE

Stratification (heat layers) occurs in a room as result of a fire

Thermal layering

Geometric shape used to depict three components of fire (fuel, oxygen, heat)

Fire triangle

Transition phase in fire surfaces exposed to thermal radiation

Flashover

List two methods in which a fire involving a liquid fuel can be extinguished

1. Shutting off the supply of fuel


2. Using foam to exclude oxygen from fuel

What is deadly in small quantities?

Carbon monoxide

Why is carpet readily ignitable?

By radiant heat, even when it is some distance away from the fire

Temperature at which the fuel-air mixture produced by liquid will spontaneously ignite

Ignition temperature

Reactions that produce heat

Exothermic

Ability of a substance to produce combustible vapors

Volatility

Speed of the smoke leaving a burning building

Smoke velocity

Hot, high volume, high intensity, turbulent, ultra-dense black smoke that indicates in impending flashover or autoignition

Black fire

When does flashover occur?

Temperature in room becomes high enough to ignite the room's contents

What are three conditions that must be present for a vapor-air mixture to ignite?

1. Fuel & air present at certain concentration


2. Ignition source with energy


3. Ignition source and fuel mixture to make contact

What are three signs of a backdraft?

1. Confined fire with a large heat build up


2. Little visible flame from exterior


3. "Living" fire smoke puffing from building

List four basic methods of extinguishing fires

1. Cooling burning materials


2. Excluding oxygen from fire


3. Remove fuel from fire


4. Interrupt chemical reaction with flame

Energy that is created or released by the combination or decomposition of chemical compounds

Chemical energy

Phase of fire development in which the fire is spreading beyond point of origin and beginning to involve other fuels in the immediate area

Growth phase

Material will maintain combustion under specified environmental conditions (NFPA 53)

Fuel

A substance made up of atoms and molecules

Matter

Reactions that result in the release of energy in the form of heat

Exothermic

The smallest particle of an element, which can exist alone or in combination

Atom

Any material that (1) has a fluidity greater than that of 300 penetration asphalt (2) is a viscous substance from which a specific melting point cannot be determined

Liquid

One of the three phases of matter; a material that has three dimensions and is firm in substance

Solid

A state of inadequate oxygenation of the blood and tissue sufficient to cause impairment of function

Hypoxia

A burning structure

Box

Material that has a vapor pressure greater than 300 kPa absolute at 50 degrees C or is completely gaseous at 20 degrees C at a standard pressure

Gas

The quantity of smoke, which indicates how much fuel is being heated

Smoke volume

The emission and propagation of energy through matter or space by means of electromagnetic disturbances that display both wave like and particle like behavior

Radiation

A rapid, persistent chemical reaction that releases both heat and light

Fire

The phase of fire development in which the fire has consumed either the available fuel or oxygen and is starting to die down

Decay phase

The airborne solid and liquid particulates and gases evolved when a material undergoes pyrolysis or combustion, together with quantity of air mixed into the mass

Smoke

An explosion that occurs when a tank containing a volatile liquid at the bottom of a tank and flammable gas at the top of the tank is heated to the point where tank eruptes

BLEVE

The column of hot gases, flames and smoke rising above a fire; also called convection column, thermal updraft or thermal column

Plume

The destructive distillation of organic compounds in an oxygen free environment that converts the organic matter into gases, liquids and char

Pyrolysis

Mixtures below this limit are said to be "too lean"

Lower Flammable Limit (LFL)

Concentration of a combustible material in air below which ignition will not occur

Lower Flammable Limit (LFL)

Highest concentration of a combustible substance in a gaseous oxidizer that will propagate a flame

Upper flammable limit (UFL)

What does smoke mainly consist of?

Unburned forms of hydrocarbons fuels

Completely burned particles

Ash

What is the mixture of air consist of?

21 percent oxygen


78 percent nitrogen


1 percent other (carbon dioxide)

Is combustion process considered exothermic or endothermic?

Combustion = exothermic (releases heat energy)