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77 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back

The process of transferring heat through matter by movement of the kinetic energy from one particle to another


The column of hot gases, flames, and smoke rising above a fire; also called convection column, thermal draft or thermal column


Three phases of matter

Solid, liquid and gas

Transfer of heat through the emission of energy in the form of invisible waves


The process in which oxygen combines chemically with another substance to create a new compound


The phase of fire where the fire is running out of fuel


Reactions that absorb heat or require heat to be added


Heat transfer by circulation within a medium such as a gas or liquid


A state of inadequate oxygenation of the blood and tissue


Created by splitting the nucleus of an atom

Nuclear fission

Why does a thin piece of wood burns quickly?

Large surface area

Which class of fires involves ordinary combustibles such as wood?

Class A fires

What are the basic units of measure for fire behavior used in the United States?

British system of units

A very rapid chemical process that combines oxygen with another substance and results in the release of heat and light


Which class fires involves flammable or combustible liquids such as gasoline?

Class B fires

What is the primary factor in upward fire spread?


The movement of heat through a fluid medium such as air or liquid


When hot gases flow across a ceiling and cooler air stays closer to the floor

Thermal layering

The lowest temperature at which a liquid produces a flammable vapor

Flash point

In which phase of fire does additional fuel become involved in the fire?

Growth phase

Which class of fires involves burning metals?

Class D fires

What are the basic units of measure in Canada?

International system of units

The decomposition of a material brought about by heat in the absence of oxygen


What does incomplete combustion produce?


The weight of a gaseous fuel

Vapor density

What type of energy occurs when two materials rub together and produce friction?

Mechanical energy

The transfer of heat energy in the form of invisible waves


What is represented by the four conditions that must be present for fire to take place?

Fire tetrahedron

What are the three major components of smoke?

1. Particles

2. Vapors

3. Gases

What is the key to preventing a BLEVE?

Cool the top of the tank

What is the actual material that is consumed by a fire?


How does flammable limits vary?

Vary from one fuel to another one

Minimum amount of gaseous fuel that must be present in gas/air mixture for mixture to be flammable

Lower flammable limit

Minimum temperature that a substance should attain to ignite under specific test conditions

Ignition temperature

Minimum temperature of a liquid at which sufficient vapor is given off to form an ignitable mixture with air

Flash point

Explosion that occurs when tank containing volatile liquid at bottom of tank and a flammable gas at top of tank is heated to point where tank ruptures


Stratification (heat layers) occurs in a room as result of a fire

Thermal layering

Geometric shape used to depict three components of fire (fuel, oxygen, heat)

Fire triangle

Transition phase in fire surfaces exposed to thermal radiation


List two methods in which a fire involving a liquid fuel can be extinguished

1. Shutting off the supply of fuel

2. Using foam to exclude oxygen from fuel

What is deadly in small quantities?

Carbon monoxide

Why is carpet readily ignitable?

By radiant heat, even when it is some distance away from the fire

Temperature at which the fuel-air mixture produced by liquid will spontaneously ignite

Ignition temperature

Reactions that produce heat


Ability of a substance to produce combustible vapors


Speed of the smoke leaving a burning building

Smoke velocity

Hot, high volume, high intensity, turbulent, ultra-dense black smoke that indicates in impending flashover or autoignition

Black fire

When does flashover occur?

Temperature in room becomes high enough to ignite the room's contents

What are three conditions that must be present for a vapor-air mixture to ignite?

1. Fuel & air present at certain concentration

2. Ignition source with energy

3. Ignition source and fuel mixture to make contact

What are three signs of a backdraft?

1. Confined fire with a large heat build up

2. Little visible flame from exterior

3. "Living" fire smoke puffing from building

List four basic methods of extinguishing fires

1. Cooling burning materials

2. Excluding oxygen from fire

3. Remove fuel from fire

4. Interrupt chemical reaction with flame

Energy that is created or released by the combination or decomposition of chemical compounds

Chemical energy

Phase of fire development in which the fire is spreading beyond point of origin and beginning to involve other fuels in the immediate area

Growth phase

Material will maintain combustion under specified environmental conditions (NFPA 53)


A substance made up of atoms and molecules


Reactions that result in the release of energy in the form of heat


The smallest particle of an element, which can exist alone or in combination


Any material that (1) has a fluidity greater than that of 300 penetration asphalt (2) is a viscous substance from which a specific melting point cannot be determined


One of the three phases of matter; a material that has three dimensions and is firm in substance


A state of inadequate oxygenation of the blood and tissue sufficient to cause impairment of function


A burning structure


Material that has a vapor pressure greater than 300 kPa absolute at 50 degrees C or is completely gaseous at 20 degrees C at a standard pressure


The quantity of smoke, which indicates how much fuel is being heated

Smoke volume

The emission and propagation of energy through matter or space by means of electromagnetic disturbances that display both wave like and particle like behavior


A rapid, persistent chemical reaction that releases both heat and light


The phase of fire development in which the fire has consumed either the available fuel or oxygen and is starting to die down

Decay phase

The airborne solid and liquid particulates and gases evolved when a material undergoes pyrolysis or combustion, together with quantity of air mixed into the mass


An explosion that occurs when a tank containing a volatile liquid at the bottom of a tank and flammable gas at the top of the tank is heated to the point where tank eruptes


The column of hot gases, flames and smoke rising above a fire; also called convection column, thermal updraft or thermal column


The destructive distillation of organic compounds in an oxygen free environment that converts the organic matter into gases, liquids and char


Mixtures below this limit are said to be "too lean"

Lower Flammable Limit (LFL)

Concentration of a combustible material in air below which ignition will not occur

Lower Flammable Limit (LFL)

Highest concentration of a combustible substance in a gaseous oxidizer that will propagate a flame

Upper flammable limit (UFL)

What does smoke mainly consist of?

Unburned forms of hydrocarbons fuels

Completely burned particles


What is the mixture of air consist of?

21 percent oxygen

78 percent nitrogen

1 percent other (carbon dioxide)

Is combustion process considered exothermic or endothermic?

Combustion = exothermic (releases heat energy)