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49 Cards in this Set

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_________ is a rapid chemical process that produces heat and light.

Fire
Matter is made up of _____ and _______.
atoms / molecules
Matter exists in three states:
solid, liquid, and gas
A _______ has definite capacity for resisting forces and under ordinary conditions retains a definite size and shape.
solid
A _________ assumes the shape of the container in which it is placed.
liquid
A _______ is a type of liquid that has neither independent shape nor independent volume, but rather tends to expand indefinitely.
gas
Fuels are a form of energy. Energy exists in many forms, including:
chemical, mechanical, electrical, light, or nuclear
_________ energy is the energy created by a chemical reaction.
Chemical
__________ energy is converted to heat when two materials rub against each other and create friction.
Mechanical
__________ energy is converted to heat energy when it flows through a conductive material. Light energy is caused by electromagnetic waves packaged in photons and travels as thermal radiation.
Electrical

_________ energy is stored in radioactive materials and converted to electricity by nuclear power-generating stations.

Nuclear
The three basic conditions needed for a fire to occur are _________, ____________ and _________. A fourth factor, a ____________ ___________ ___________, is required to maintain a self-sustaining fire.
fuel, oxygen, and heat / chemical chain reaction
The by-product of fire is ________ .
smoke
Smoke includes three major components:
particles, vapors, and gases
Smoke consists mainly of unburned forms of _________ fuels.
hydrocarbon
Fire may be spread by: (four methods)
direct contact, conduction, convection, and radiation.
Direct contact is a flame touching a _______.
fuel
____________ is the transfer of heat through matter, like heat traveling up a metal spoon.
Conduction
___________ is the circulatory movement that occurs in a gas or fluid.
Convection

___________ currents in a fire involve gases that are generated by the fire and travel along the ceiling of a room.

Convection
Such convection currents carry ____________ _________, which may ultimately heat flammable materials enough to ignite them.
superheated gases
_____________ is the transfer of heat through the emission of energy in the form of invisible waves.
Radiation
The four principal methods of fire extinguishment are:
cooling the fuel, excluding oxygen, removing the fuel, and interrupting the chemical reaction

\Fires are categorized as five classes. These classes reflect the type of fuel that is burning and the type of hazard that the fire represents. What are the 5 classes?

Class A, Class B, Class C, Class D, and Class K
Class ____ fires involve ordinary solid combustible materials such as wood, paper, and cloth.
A
Class ____ fires involve flammable or combustible liquids such as gasoline, kerosene, diesel fuel, and motor oil.
B
Class _____ fires involve energized electrical equipment.
C
Class ____ fires involve combustible metals such as sodium, magnesium, and titanium.
D
Class ____ fires involve combustible cooking oils and fats in kitchens.
K
Most fires encountered by fire fighters involve _______fuels.
solid
Solid fuels do not actually burn in a solid state. Instead, they must be heated or _________ to decompose into a vapor before they will burn.
pyrolyzed
Solid-fuel fires develop through four phases:
the ignition phase, the growth phase, the fully developed phase, and the decay phase.
The _________ phase occurs as the fuel starts to burn, increasing the convection of hot gases upward.
growth
The _____________ phase occurs when all available fuel has ignited and heat is being produced at the maximum rate.
fully developed
During the _________ phase, the rate of burning slows down because less fuel is available.
decay
The growth of room-and-contents fires depends on the __________ of the room and the ________ of the room.
characteristics / contents
Synthetic products are widely used in today’s homes. The by-products of _________ _________ are not only flammable, but also toxic.
heated plastics
____________ ___________ is the property of gases in an enclosed space in which they form layers according to their temperature. The hottest gases travel by convection currents to the top level of the room.
Thermal layering
____________ is the spontaneous ignition of hot gases in the upper levels of a room.
Flameover
___________ is the near-simultaneous ignition of most of the exposed combustible materials in an enclosed area.
Flashover
____________ is caused by the introduction of oxygen into an enclosure where superheated gases and contents are hot enough for ignition but the fire does not have sufficient oxygen to cause their combustion.
Backdraft
Modern structures tend to be more tightly sealed, be constructed of lighter-weight materials, and contain more plastics. These characteristics can lead to a greater risk of _________ when a fire occurs in such a structure.
backdrafts
______________ fires require the proper mixture of fuel and air, an ignition source, and contact between the fuel mixture and the ignition.
Liquid-fuel
The characteristics of flammable vapors can be described in terms of _________________ and _________________.
vapor density / flammability limits
_________ ___________ reflects the weight of a gas compared to air.

Vapor density

______________ limits vary widely for different fuels.
Flammability
A ___________________________________ is a catastrophic explosion in a vessel containing both a boiling liquid and a vapor.
boiling liquid/expanding vapor explosion (BLEVE)
Assessment of ___________________________________ enables fire fighters to predict the location of a fire and its stage of development.
smoke volume, velocity, density, and color
__________ ____________ requires fire fighters to evaluate the effect of the building, the weather, and ventilation on the smoke.
Smoke reading