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116 Cards in this Set

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Employs both direct and indirect attack methods sequentially

Combination attack

Apparatus mounted device intended to flow large amounts of water directly onto a fire or exposed building

Deck gun

Nozzle attached to the end of the ladder truck

Ladder pipe

Produced by a smooth bore nozzle

Solid stream

How many fire fighters are usually needed to advance a 2 1/2 inch hose line inside a building?

Three team members

Used to produce high volume water streams

Master stream device

What device can be positioned whenever a master stream is needed?

Portable monitor

Nozzle mounted on the end of an aerial device

Elevated master stream device

Type of attack that is used to remove as much heat as possible

Indirect attack

A straight or solid hose stream directed at the base of the fire

Direct attack

What class fire extinguisher is used when controlling and extinguishing electrical or electrical equipment fires?

Class C agents

When are master stream devices used?

To produce high volume water streams for large fires

When actions are taken to prevent the spread of a fire to areas that are not already burning

Protecting exposures

What operations are master streams typically used for?

Defensive operations

What is the primary objective in a defensive operation?

To prevent the fire from spreading

What type of fire extinguisher is used to decrease the need for manual overhaul during trash container fires?

Class A foam

What do you interrupt when removing oxygen, fuel or the heat from the combustion process?

Tetrahedron

What is the device that is permanently mounted on a vehicle and equipped with a piping system?

Deck gun

How should fire fighters approach a vehicle fire that is under the hood or engine area?

Uphill and upwind side

What type of fire extinguisher is used to extinguish flammable liquid fires?

Class B foam

What defines the pattern and form of the water that is discharged onto the fire?

Nozzle

What is important to do after the main body of a vehicle fire has been extinguished?

Overhaul the vehicle

Who makes the decision to conduct offensive or defensive operations?

Incident commander

What type of attack is utilized when fire fighters begin with an indirect attack and then continue with a direct attack?

Combination

What is the diameter of a large handline?

Large Handlines = Diameter of at least 2 1/2 inches

How much does the volume of water expand when water is converted to steam?

1700 times greater than the volume of water

What should fire fighters use in situations where the temperature is increasing and it appears that the room or space is ready to experience flashover?

Indirect application of water = flashover

What type of strategy is used when fire fighters advance hose lines into a building to attack a fire?

Offensive

Where are cylinders usually located in vehicles that use compressed natural gas?

In the truck of the vehicle

What are propane tanks equipped with to prevent explosions in possible overheating situations?

Relief valves

What is the expansion ratio when storing propane as a liquid?

270:1 = expansion ratio of propane

Large capacity nozzle that can be supplied by two or more hose lines or fixed piping

Master stream devices

What are some types of master stream devices?

Deck guns


Portable ground monitors


Elevated streams

Use of solid wall to break apart a stream of water, creating more surface area

Indirect application of water

Monitor that can be lifted from a vehicle mounted bracket and moved to operating position on ground by not more than two people

Portable monitor

Using an adjustable nozzle to provide straight stream of water

Straight stream

Liquid fuel is stored in a vessel under pressure. Bottom of vessel contains liquid propane, upper part of vessel contain vapor propane. Heat builds pressure of expanding liquid. Exceeds boiling point of liquid. Explosion occurs.

BLEVE


Boiling


Liquid


Expanding


Vapor


Explosion

How does a fire fighter cool a propane tank?

Cool top of tank to cool upper part of tank that contains vapor propane

Which stream divides water into droplets which have a very large surface area and can absorb heat efficiently?

Fog stream

What operation involves directing water onto a fire from a safe distance?

Defensive operation

What part of the house are difficult and dangerous spaces to enter, and have limited routes of egress?

Basements

Which stream moves a large quantity of air along with mass of water droplets?

Fog stream

What operation often use large handlines and master streams?

Defensive operations

What is referred to as a fire that occurs inside a building?

Interior structure fire

What is one of the main hazards of confined space fires and incidents?

Low oxygen levels

What type of attack uses a straight or solid hose stream to deliver water onto the base of the fire?

Direct attack

What does master streams commonly flow between?

350 and 2000 gpm

How should fires in stacked or piled materials be approached?

Cautiously because they often don't burn evenly

What can the air movement created by a fog stream be used for?

Ventilation

What must fire fighters look for during vehicle fires in hybrid automobiles?

BE CAUTIOUS = HIGH VOLTAGE

Disconnect / Cut orange cables that connect the batteries to the electric motors

What type of operations are large handlines often used in directing a heavy stream of water onto a fire from an exterior position?

Both offensive and defensive situations

Which stream has more reach and penetrating power than a fog or straight stream?

Solid stream has more reach and penetrating power than a fog or straight stream

What is the best method to prevent a BLEVE?

To direct heavy water streams onto the tank from a safe distance

What is the first step in an interior fire attack?

Don full PPE including SCBA

-Divides water into droplets


- Provides large surface area


- Absorbs heat efficiently


- Used to protect fire fighters from heat

Fog stream

- Has greater reach than a fog stream


- Can hit fire farther away


- Can concentrate on small area

Straight stream

- Provided by smooth bore nozzle


- Greater reach and penetrate power

Solid stream

- Used straight or solid hose stream to deliver water


- Used to deliver water directly onto base of fire

Direct attack

- Used when room is ready to flashover


- Aims a short burst of water at ceiling to cool super heated gases in upper levels of room


- Delays and prevents flashover


- Quickly removes as much heat as possible

Indirect attack

Type of attack that employs both direct attack and indirect attack

Combination attack

- Fire can burn in combustible void spaces behind walls and under sub floors


- Main hazard is low level oxygen

Concealed space fires

What are characteristics of a basement fire?

- Difficult to recognize


- Damage floor above fire


- Limited route of egress


- Difficult to ventilate

What are some tactics used to suppress fires above ground level?

- Protect stairways (vertical openings)


- Advance line uncharged until reach fire floor


- Look for secondary exit

Made by using a smooth bore nozzle

Solid stream

Made by using an adjustable nozzle

Straight stream

Can be lifted from a vehicle mounted bracket and moved to an operating position on the ground by not more than two people

Portable monitor

A monitor that is fed by a hose and that holds and directs a nozzle while attached to the rungs of a vehicle mounted aerial ladder

Ladder pipe

An apparatus mounted master stream device that is intended to flow large amounts of water directly onto a fire or exposed building

Deck gun

What is the primary objective in a defensive operation?

To prevent the fire from spreading

What is the most frequently used handline size for interior fire attack?

1 3/4 inch

What diameter are large handlines defined as?

At least 2 1/2 inch = LDH

What is the rate of flow for large handlines?

LDH = 2 1/2 inch = 250 gpm

What is flow for the most commonly used master stream device?

Master stream = 350 gpm and 1500 gpm

Which method knocks the main body of fire down with a heavy stream; crews can then stretch handlines into the site and extinguish the remaining fire?

"Blitz"

Which stream divides water into droplets, which have a very large surface area and can absorb heat efficiently?

Fog stream

What is the most effective means of fires suppression in most situations?

Direct attack

What streams are used in direct attack?

Direct attack = straight or solid

Which attack does a straight or solid hose stream is used to deliver water directly onto the base of the fire?

Direct attack

Which attack is to quickly remove as much as heat as possible from the atmosphere

Indirect attack

Which attack has fire fighters direct a fog stream at the ceiling of the intensely heated area so as to create stream?

Indirect attack

How many fire fighters are needed to stabilize and advance a large handline?

Three more comfortably and safety than two

What is the flow rate of most master streams?

Between 350 and 1500 gpm

When should master streams NOT be used?

Master streams should never be directed into a building while fire fighters are operating inside the structure because these streams can push heat, smoke or fire onto the fire fighters

How can a moving portable monitor pose a danger to anyone in its path?

If stream is operated at a low angle, the reaction force will tend to make the monitor unstable

What becomes even more important with a large fire?

Exposure protection becomes priority where the fire is too large to be controlled by an initial attack

What are signs of fire within a concealed space fire?

- Smoke coming from cracks or openings in wall


- Charred areas with no outward evidence of fire


- Peeling or bubbled paint or wallpaper

What most a fire fighter do for fires within a concealed space?

Listen for cracks and pops or hissing steam

How should a fire fighter attack a vehicle fire?

- No closer than 50 feet with full PPE and SCBA


- Use 1 1/2 inch hose line


- Approach vehicle uphill and upwind position and at 45 degree angle from vehicle


- Sweep bottom part of vehicle using horizontal motion

How can fire in trash containers be fought with?

Foam or deck guns

Which attack uses a solid object such as wall or ceiling to break apart a stream of water, creating more surface area on the water droplets and thereby causing the water to absorb more heat?

Indirect attack

Which stream is made by using a smooth bore nozzle to produce a penetrating steam of water?

Solid stream

What is the expansion ratio of propane?

270:1

What should be done once the gas has been shut off to a building?

Attach a shut off tag

What is the flow rate of large handlines?

LDH = 2 1/2 inch = 250 gpm

What challenge do fire fighters frequently face when extinguishing an engine compartment fire?

Gaining access

How can a master stream device be operated?

By either manually operated or directed by remote control

In which operational mode are operations that are conducted from outside of the fire building?

Defensive

What term refers to two crews operating hose lines "against" each other?

Opposing lines

What level of priority does exposure protection take during a defensive operation?

High priority

From a doorway, a crew directs a hose stream at the ceiling of a burning room. What type of attack is this?

Indirect attack

What type of attack involves the application of water to the base of a fire with a straight stream or solid stream?

Direct attack

What is the flow commonly used on master stream devices?

350 to 2500 gpm

What is a characteristic of a fog stream?

It creates water droplets with a large surface area

What refers to all of the tactics and tasks that are performed on the fire scene to achieve the final goal of extinguishing the fire?

Fire suppression

What successful fire suppression operation can be controlled with the least amount of property damage?

Offensive attack

What handlines are used during an offensive strategy?

SDH for most interior fire attack operations


LDH to conduct an interior attack on a large fire

What handlines are often used in defensive operations?

LDH and master stream

When should offensive (interior attack) and defensive (exterior attack) be performed simultaneously?

NEVER

How many fire fighters are needed to operate a nozzle on a small handline?

One to operate nozzle


Second fire fighter to advance and manuever

How many fire fighters are needed to operate a nozzle on a large handline?

At least two fire are required to advance and control


However one can control if firmly anchored

What fire suppression method has fire fighter aim a short burst of water at ceiling to cool the super heated gases in the upper levels of the room or space?

Indirect application of water = prevent or delay flashover

What action can prevent or delay flashover long enough for fire fighters to apply water directly to the seat of the fire or to make a safe exit?

Indirect application of water = short burst of water at ceiling to cool the super heated gases in the upper levels of the room or space

What practice is often referred to as "painting the ceiling" with the water stream?

Indirect attack = direct water to ceiling


Using straight stream, solid stream or narrow fog pattern

When water is converted to gaseous steam how much does it expand?

Occupy a volume 1700 times greater

What should a fire fighter watch for when using an indirect or combination attack?

Droplets of water raining down


Indicates lowered ceiling temperature


No droplets, ceiling is still too hot

What is the first priority at a large free burning fire?

Protect exposed buildings and property from a combination of radiant heat, conductive heat, and burning embers