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67 Cards in this Set

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Hose from 3/4" to 2"

Small Diameter Hose (SDH)


AKA: small line

Attack methods that involve the discharge of water or foam directly onto the burning fuel

Direct Attack (Structural)

Attack methods that involves directing streams toward the ceiling generating stream to cool the compartment

Indirect Attack (Structural)

Extinguishing a fire using both direct and indirect methods

Combination Attack

A fire either obstructed from view by objects in the compartment or located in a remote section of the structure

Shielded Fire

Structure or separate part of the fireground where a fire could spread

Exposures

Covering any object in the immediate vicinity of the fire with water or foam

Exposure Protection

Any voltage in excess of 600 watts

High Voltage

Any voltage less than 600 watts and safe enough for domestic use typically 120 volts or less

Low Voltage

Any of several petroleum products like propane or butane stored under pressure as a liquid

Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG)

Toxic compound found in some older oil-filled electric transformers

Polychlorinated Biphenyl

Physical configuration of the land or terrain

Topography

A friction match with a large head capable of burning in a wind

Fusee

Attack where extinguishing agent is applied directly to burning fuels

Direct Attack (Ground Cover)

Method of controlling a ground cover fire where a constructed or located line is used by burning the fuel between the main line and the control line

Indirect Attack (Ground Cover)

Value- Life and safety hazards at the scene, savable lives, and/or salvageable property




Time- Time to accomplish selected tactics, potential for collapse and deterioration of structural stability, and potential changes in fire conditions




Size- Tactical flow rates needed to control the fire, available resources, and fire conditions

Categories used to help determine the tactics during an offensive strategy

In extreme cases where a victim is known to be trapped, rescue will become the _____________


and fire attack will be performed only to protect the rescuers and the victim

Primary Activity

-No threat to occupant life exists


-Occupants are not savable


-The property is not salvageable


-Sufficient resources are not available for an offensive strategy


-There is a danger of structural collapse


-An offensive strategy would endanger the lives of firefighters because of hazardous conditions at the scene

Factors that typically indicate a defensive strategy

Rescue and/or Fire Extinguishment are the primary objectives for

Offensive Strategy

Intended to isolate or stabilize an incident and keep it from expanding

Defensive Strategy

-Fire load and material involved


-Flow rate needed


-Stream reach needed


-Number of firefighters available


-Need for speed and mobility


-Tactical requirements


-Ease of hoseline deployment


-Potential fire spread, size of building, size of fire area, and location of fire

Factors that help determine hoseline selection

-Fire conditions


-Available water supply


-Number of firefighters available


-Capabilities of the nozzle being used

Factors that determine nozzle selection

What type of nozzle is generally the most useful for an interior attack

Fog nozzle

-Developing fire


-For quick attack


-For rapid relocation of streams


-When personnel are limited


-When ratio of fuel load to an area is relatively light


-For exposure protection


One to three rooms

When is a 1 1/2 to 1 3/4 hose stream used

-When size and intensity of fire are beyond reach, flow, or penetration of 1 1/2 line


-When both water and personnel are ample


-When safety of crew dictates


-When larger volumes or greater reach are required for exposure protection


One floor, or more; fully involved

When is a 2 to 2 1/2 hose stream used

-When size and intensity of fire are beyond reach of hand lines

-Water is ample, but personnel is limited


-When safety of crew dictates


-When larger volumes or greater reach are required for exposure protection


-When sufficient pumping is available


-When massive runoff can be tolerated


-When interior attack can no longer be maintained


Large structures; fully involved


When is a master stream used

-Wind direction and velocity


-Building conditions


-Initial fire location


-Location of occupants


-Exposures

Factors used to determine when and from what direction to make entry for interior attack

A way of reducing heat release from the hot gas layer

Gas Cooling


Direct, short bursts or pulses of water fog into the gas layer

LPG is explosive in concentrations in what range

1.5% to 10%

What is the minimum supply for a master stream

Two, 2 1/2-inch lines

Has a yoke on the outside with a threaded stem that opens and closes the gate inside the valve housing. The threaded portion of the stem is visible beyond the yoke when the valve is open and not visible if the valve is closed.

Outside stem and yoke (OS&Y)

Hollow metal post that houses the valve stem. Attached to the valve stem is a movable plate with the words OPEN or SHUT visible through a small glass window on the side of the housing. When not in use, the operating handle is locked to the valve housing.

Post indicator valve (PIV)

Similar to a PIV except that it extends horizontally through the wall with the target and valve operating nut on the outside of the building

Wall post indicator valve (WPIV)

Does not use a plate with words OPEN and SHUT. Instead uses a circular disk inside a flat plate on top of the valve housing. When the valve is open, the disk is perpendicular to the surrounding plate. When it's closed, the disk is in line with the plate that surrounds it. Operated with a built-in crank.

Post indicator valve assembly (PIVA)

Nontoxic, noncorrosive; has a narrow explosive range

Natural gas

Clean burning; safer than gasoline; stored under pressure

Liquefied petroleum gas

Battery sole source of power; may not emit noise when engine is running

Electric

Water soluble; electrically conductive; has slight gasoline odor

Ethanol/methanol

Nontoxic; biodegradable; sulfur free

Biodiesel

Colorless; odorless; nontoxic; energy efficient

Hydrogen

Area from where the fire started (Groundcover)

Origin

Part of ground cover that spreads most rapidly (Groundcover)

Head

Long narrow strip of fire extending from the main fire (Groundcover)

Finger

Outer boundary, or distance around outside edge, of burning or burned area (Groundcover)

Perimeter

The side opposite head. (Groundcover)

Heel

Sides, roughly parallel to main direction of fire spread (Groundcover)

Flanks

Caused by flying sparks or embers landing outside main fire (Groundcover)

Spot Fire

Patches of unburned fuel inside fire perimeter (Groundcover)

Islands

Area of unburned fuels next to involved area (Groundcover)

Green

Area in which fire has consumed the fuels (Groundcover)

Black

To aggressively attack a fire from the exterior with a LDH fire stream

Blitz Attack

-Establish Command


-Make the initial size up


-Deploy available resources


- Communicate the situation to the communication center and other responding units

Typical actions of the First Arriving Engine Company

-Are there occupants in need of immediate rescue


-Does the fire threaten other exposures


-What does the fire and smoke indicate


-Are only the contents involved or is the structure burning


-Are there enough resources on scene or en route to handle the situation

How the First Arriving Engine should base their actions

-Finishing a hose lay


-Deploying additional hoseline


-Connecting to a hydrant to support hoselines already deployed


*Make sure adequate water supply is established*

Tasks that the Second Arriving Engine Company may be assigned to complete that the First Arriving Engine Company began

-Assist advancing first attack hoseline


-Back up the initial attack line


-Protect secondary means of egress


-Prevent fire extension


-Protect the most threatened exposure


-Assist in extinguishment


-Assist with fireground support company operations


-Form the RIT

Tasks assigned to the Second Arriving Engine Company once the water supply has been established

May arrive before, with, or after the first engine company

Fireground Support Company

-Forcible entry


-Search and Rescue


-Property conservation


-Ground or aerial ladder placement


-Ventilation


-Scene lighting


-Utility control


-Operating elevated fire streams


-Overhaul

Tasks performed by the Fireground Support Company

-The areas most severely threatened (as long as the area is searchable without undue risk to firefighter safety)


-The areas where the largest number are threatened (as long as the area is searchable without undue risk to firefighter safety)


-Remainder of fire area


-Exposures

Search Priorities

Upon arrival if the problem is not obvious to the first engine what should be broadcast on the radio

Nothing Showing

When the officer or firefighter's direct involvement is necessary for the unit to take immediate action to save a life or stabilize the situation what should be announced

Fast-Attack

Involves the officer/firefighter performing multiple tasks such as serving as IC, developing IAP, and performing active tasks like advancing a hoseline

Combat command

Involves the company officer remaining at the mobile radio in the apparatus, assigning tasks to unit personnel, communicating with other responding units, and expanding the NIMS-ICS as needed by the complexity of the incident

Formal Command

-Name of incident


-Incident status


-Safety considerations


-Goals and objectives listed in the IAP


-Progress toward completion of tactical objectives


-Deployment of assigned resources


-Assessment of the need for additional resources

Items that should be briefed to an incoming IC during a transfer of command

Fires that involve flammable and combustible liquids and gases

Class B fires

Flash point of less than 100 degrees

Flammable Liquids

Flash point of more than 100 degress

Combustible Liquids

Fire suppression system designed to protect hazards within enclosed structures; foam is released into a compartment or area and fills it completely, extinguishing the fire

Total Flooding System