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60 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back

Amount of energy required to raise the temperature of a specified unit of mass material 1 degree in temperature

Specific Heat

Quantity of heat absorbed by a substance at the point at which it changes from a liquid to a vapor

Latent Heat of Vaporization

Loss of pressure created by the turbulence of water moving against the interior walls of fire hose, pipes, fittings, and adapters

Friction Loss

Force created by the rapid deceleration of water causing a violent increase in pressure that can be powerful enough to rupture piping or damage fixtures. Generally results from closing a valve or nozzle too quickly

Water Hammer

Stream of water or other water-based extinguishing agent after it leaves the fire hose and nozzle until it reaches the desired point

Fire Stream

The minimum flow rate at which extinguishment can be achieved

Critical Flow Rate

Hose stream that stays together as a solid mass, produced by a smooth bore nozzle and should not be confused with a straight stream

Solid Stream

A nozzle with a straight, smooth tip, designed to produce a solid fire stream

Smooth Bore Nozzle

Velocity pressure at which water is discharged from the nozzle

Nozzle Pressure

Fire stream of finely divided particles used for fire control

Fog Stream

An adjustable pattern nozzle equipped with a shutoff control device

Fog Nozzle

Semi-solid stream that is produced by a fog nozzle

Straight Stream

Stream of water that has been broken into coarsely divided drops

Broken Stream

Large caliber water stream usually supplied by combining two or more hoselines into a manifold device or by fixed piping that delivers 350 gallons per minute or more

Master Stream

Valve having a ball-shaped internal component with a hole through its center that permits water to flow through when aligned with the waterway

Ball Valve

Counter force directed against a person holding a nozzle or a device holding a nozzle by the velocity of water being discharged

Nozzle Reaction

An adjustable-pattern fog nozzle in which the rated discharge is delivered at a designated nozzle pressure and nozzle setting

Basic Fog Nozzle

An adjustable-pattern fog nozzle in which the pressure remains relatively constant through a range of discharge rates

Constant Pressure (automatic) Fog Nozzle

An adjustable pattern fog nozzle that discharges a constant discharge rate throughout the range of patterns at a designed nozzle pressure

Constant Gallonage Fog Nozzle

A constant discharge rate fog nozzle with a feature that allows manual adjustment of the orifice to affect a predetermined discharge rate while the nozzle is flowing

Constant/Select Gallonage Fog Nozzle

Extinguishing agent formed by mixing a foam concentrate with water and aerating the solution for expansion; for use on Class A and Class B fires


Works by forming a blanket on the surface of burning fuels- both liquid and solid

How Foam generally works

Separating, Cooling, Smothering, and Penetrating

How Foam extinguishes and/or prevents ignition

Chemical compound solution that is mixed with water and air to produce finished foam; may be protein, synthetic, aqueous film forming, high expansion, or alcohol types

Foam Concentrate

Device that introduces foam concentrate into the water stream to make the foam solution

Foam Proportioner

Mixture of foam concentrate and water before the introduction of air

Foam Solution

Completed product after air is introduced into the foam solution

Finished Foam

Result of adding air to a foam solution consisting of water and foam concentrate. Expansion creates foam bubbles that result in finished foam or foam blanket

Foam Expansion

Low-expansion Foam, Medium-expansion Foam, and High-expansion Foam

Three classifications of Foam

Has an air/solution ratio up to 20 parts finished foam for every part of foam solution (20 to 1)

Effective for controlling and extinguishing most Class B fires. Also effective for cooling and penetrating Class A fires

Low-expansion Foam

Has an air/solution ratio between 20 to 1 to 200 to 1 through hydraulically operated nozzle-style delivery devices.

Used to suppress vapors from hazardous materials spills when applied at expansion ratios of 30 to 1 and 55 to 1

Medium-expansion Foam

Synthetic foaming agents created by foam generators at ratios from 200 to 1 to 1000 to 1. Typically used in confined spaces such as shipboard compartments, basements, mines, and enclosed aircraft hangers

High-expansion Foam

Hydrocarbon based surfactants, are essentially wetting agents that reduce the surface tension of water and allow it to soak into combustible materials more easily than plain water

Class A Foam

Chemical that lowers the surface tension of a liquid; allows water to spread more rapidly over the surface of Class A fuels and penetrate organic fuels


Force minimizing a liquid surface's area.

The effect of a surfactant on the water/concentration solution; allows the water to spread more rapidly over the surface of Class A fuels and penetrate organic fuels

Surface Tension

Used to prevent the ignition of or to extinguish fires involving flammable and combustible liquids. Also used to suppress vapors from unignited spills of these liquids

Class B Foam

Hydrocarbon Fuels- crude oil, fuel oil, gasoline, benzene, naptha, jet fuel, & kerosene

Polar Solvents- alcohols, acetone, lacquer thinner, ketones, esters, acids

Types of liquid fuels that Class B Foam is effective on

Synthetic foam concentrate that, when combined with water, can form a complete barrier over fuel spills and fires and is a highly effective extinguishing and blanketing agent on hydrocarbon fuels

Aqueous Film Forming Foam (AFFF)

Foam concentrate that combines the qualities of fluoroprotein foam with those of aqueous film forming foam

Film Forming Fluoroprotein Foam (FFFP)

Having a thick, sticky, adhesive consistency


A measure of the acidity or alkalinity of a solution


Mixing of water with an appropriate amount of foam concentrate to form a foam solution


Eduction, Injection, Batch-mixing, Premixing

Four basic methods by which foam may be proportioned

Process used to mix foam concentrate with water in a nozzle or proportioner; concentrate is drawn into the water stream by the Venturi method


AKA Induction

Physical law stating that when a fluid, such as water or air, is forced under pressure through a restricted orifice, there is an increase in velocity of the fluid passing through the orifice and a corresponding decrease in the pressure exerted in the sides of the constriction. Because the surrounding fluid is under greater pressure, it is forced into the area of lower pressure

Venturi Principle

AKA Venturi Effect

Method of proportioning foam that uses an external pump or head pressure to force foam concentrate into the fire stream at the correct ratio for the flow desired


Mixing premeasured portions of water and foam concentrate in a container. Typically used with portable extinguishers, wheeled extinguishers, skid mounted twin agent units, and vehicle mounted tank systems


Generic term used to describe a high energy foam generating system consisting of a water pump, a foam proportioning system, and an air compressor (or other air source) that injects air into the foam solution before it enters a hoseline

Compressed Air Foam System


Eductor that is placed along the length of a hoseline

In-line Eductor

Any nozzle that can be safely handled by one to three firefighters and flows less than 350 gallons per minute

Handline Nozzle

Stream reach is considerably longer

Hoselines are lighter

Foam produced is very durable

Foam produced adheres well to vertical surfaces

Advantages of CAFS

Add expense to the purchase and maintenance of the apparatus

Stored energy can create a high nozzle reaction

Additional training is required for firefighters and driver/operators

Disadvantages of CAFS

May be used with AFFF on hydrocarbon fires but should not be used on polar solvents because insufficient aeration occurs to handle the polar solvent fires

Fog Nozzles

The most effective appliance for the generation of low-expansion foam

Inducts air into the foam solution using the Venturi Principle

Air-aspirating Foam Nozzles

Uses a solid agent container that is inserted into the specially perforated foam sleeve between the hoseline and an adjustable fog nozzle

Each 1 1/2 pound cartridge of solid agent is equal to 5 gallons liquid agent and will treat approximately 660 gallons of water

Specialized Application System

Water-aspirating type nozzle, Mechanical blower generator

Two basic types of Medium and High Expansion Foam Generators

Creates a barrier between the fuel and fire


Lowers the temperature of the fuel and adjacent surfaces


Prevents air from reaching the fuel and mixing with vapors and prevents the release of flammable vapors


Lowers the surface tension of water and allows it to penetrate fires in Class A materials