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79 Cards in this Set

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the superpowers
The United States and the Soviet Union, emerged after WWII
Truman Doctrine
(1947) Sparked by the events in Greece, President Truman's doctrine that stated it would provide money and military aid to countries who claimed they were threatened by Communist expansion.
Marshall Plan
(1947) The European Recovery Program, where the U.S. provided financial aid to European countries to help them rebuild after World War II, was hugely successful. The idea was to fight the spread of communism by fixing economic problems in Europe.
"containment"
A policy adopted by the U.S., its goal was to use whatever means to limit Soviet expansion and to prevent the spread of opposing ideas into other parts.
denazification
After WWII, the Allied policy of rooting out any traces of Nazism in German society by bringing prominent Nazis to trial for war crimes and getting rid of any known Nazis from political office. The Nazi party was made illegal.
Berlin Blockade
Soviet policy that meant the blocking of any land transport into West Berlin to stop movement of supplies, this was the first major event in the Cold War. Soviets wanted to control all of Berlin and stop the creation of West Germany
Berlin Airlift
When the U.S., France, and Great Britain flew supplies to Berlin during the Berlin Blockade.
NATO
(1949) A military alliance formed in which the countries who signed (U.S. and its allies, most of west and north Europe) agreed to provide mutual assistance if any one of them was attacked, also known as the North Atlantic Treaty Organization
Warsaw Pact
a military alliance, formed in 1955 in response to the creation of NATO, in which the Soviet Union and its satellite, communist states agreed to provide mutual assistance in the event of an attack.
Korean War
Korea was divided by the 38th parallel because of a difference of governmental views in the North and South. The North invaded the South in 1950, and the U.S. assisted the South while communist China and the USSR supported the North after General MacArthur pushed too far north.after two years of fighting, it was concluded with an armistice because the fighting failed to produce a conclusive victory.
"missile gap"
the term used in the United States for the perceived superiority of the number and power of the Soviet Union's missiles in comparison with the U.S.'s
"massive retaliation"
President Eisenhower's administration adopted this policy in response to the Korean war. It allowed for the full use of American nuclear bombs to counteract any Soviet attack in Europe.
CENTO
Known as the Central Treaty Organization, its members were Turkey, Iraq, Iran, Pakistan, Great Britain and the United States. the U.K. and U.S. meant to prevent the USSR from expanding southward by protecting these countries.
SEATO
Southeast Asia Treaty Organization, its members were the United States, Britain, France, Pakistan, Thailand, the Philippines, Australia, and New Zealand.
Nikita Khrushchev
Successor to Stalin, announced an ultimatum to the West about removing their forces from West Berlin. Not popular in the Communist Party. Testicles quote guy. Had the Berlin Wall put up.
Sputnik I
A Soviet space satellite, the first of its kind.
Berlin Wall
The most recognizable symbol of divided Europe after WWII, it was built around West Berlin to cut off the flow of refugees to the West.
Fidel Castro
The left-wing revolutionary who overthrew the Cuban dictator Batista and established a Soviet-supported totalitarian regime
Bay of Pigs
(1961) America's failed attempt to invade Cuba through this location.
the Cuban Missile Crisis
USSR wanted to station nukes in Cuba, but the U.S. blockaded Cuba. In negotiations, Khrushchev agreed to turn the fleet back if the U.S. dropped plans to invade Cuba
Ho Chi Minh
leader of nationalistic regime in North Vietnam, supported by the USSR
Vietnam War
Americans sent troops to support the South Vietnamese against the communist, soviet supported North. A dragging war and increasing draft caused a strong anti-war movement among young people in the U.S.
domino theory
Cited as justification for American intervention in Vietnam, the belief that if the Communists succeeded in Vietnam, other countries in Southeast and East Asia would also fall to communism.
dentente
The term that described relaxation of tension in USSR/US relations that occurred in the 1970s after the Vietnam War displayed American fallibility.
decolonization
In most of the world's colonies between 1947 and 1962, a period of independence movements developing in colonies and freedom being granted to these new countries.
uhuru
Swahili for freedom, it was demanded by the Kikuyu people as part of the Mau Mau movement that used terrorism to attain its goals.
African National Congress
political activity by blacks in South Africa led to this in 1912formed as a group of intellectuals who wanted economic/political reform. After the arrest of their leader, Nelson Mandela, its members called for armed resistance to the white government
apartheid
The system of racial segregation practiced in the Republic of South Africa until the 1990s, which involved political, legal, and economic discrimination against nonwhites
PLO
Palestine Liberation Organization formed by Egypt to represent the interests of Palestinians, (Arab inhabitants of modern Israel)the espoused the belief that only Palestinian peoples had the right to form a state in Palestine
al-Fatah
A guerrilla movement led by the PLO political leader Yasir Arafat, initiated terrorist attacks on Israeli territory
Yasir Arafat
PLO political leader that formed al-Fatah
Six-Day War (1967)
Israel launches a preemptive strike, decimates its enemies and triples its territory
Indian National Congress
The Hindu independence organization, the other being the Muslim League.
Mahatmi Gandhi
The leader of the Indian National Congress, he objected to the division of India
"orgy of blood"
Gandhi's prediction on the process of creating a divided India.
Mao Zedong
leader of Communist China whose long term goal of building a socialist society didn't work very well. His regime became increasingly oppressive
Great Leap Forward
(1958) Mao's radical program to expedite the arrival of a classless socialist society. existing collective farms were combined into vast "people's communes," each containing more than thirty thousand people it was a disaster
the Great Prolitarian Cultural Revolution
It lasted ten years, from 1966 to 1976, the Red Guard was set loose to destroy any evidence of the old way to force communism to come about.
Stalinization
Soviet Satellite states tried to imitate Stalinist policies starting in 1948, collectivizing agriculture and implementing tools of repression.
Destalinization
Khrushchev's policy regarding undoing some of the most repressive parts of Stalin's policies, like labor camps, intellectual freedom bans and reducing powers of the secret police
Hungarian uprising (1956)
(1956) Inspired by the Polish protests, Communists in Hungary desired reform and independence. Ended in ousting of soviets and election of Nagy as the new leader
Alexander Dubchek
elected First Secretary in Jan 1968. Successor to Novotny in Czechoslovakia, granted reform like freedom of speech and press, relaxation of secret police activity
"Prague Spring"
(1968) Period of euphoria following Dubchek's reforms
Christian Democratic Parties
Moderate political parties that experienced a comeback in the 50's. these parties were interested in democracy and economic reform.
Charles de Gaulle
formed the French Popular Movement, President of France in 1958,
Fifth Republic
formed by the new constitution drafted by de Gaulle, in it the powers of the president were increased to a near dictatorship.
Konrad Adenauer
Leader of CDU in west Germany, served as chancellor from 1949-1963. Known as the founding hero of the Federal Republic, associated with economic miracle.
West Germany's "economic miracle"
policies of new currency, free markets, low taxes, plus American financial aid that led to economic growth.
Welfare state
Forming in Great Britain, the Labour Gov't under Attlee passed reforms to allow for more social services
European Coal and Steel Community
(1951) France, West Germany and Benelux countries and italy formed a common market to foster trade growth
ECSC
European Coal and Steel community
EEC or Common Market
European Economic Community, formed by the same six countries as the ECSC, eliminated large free-trade area protected by common tariff. Encouraged cooperation
The Great Society
Creation of a welfare state first begun in the New Deal, programs for health care for the elderly, and a "war on poverty"
Martin Luther King Jr.
Baptist minister who became the leader of a movement for racial equality organizing non-violent demonstrations.
"White backlash"
Race riots breaking out from the more radical approaches to attaining civil rights and extremist radical black leaders led to this
"consumer society"
Shift from rural to urban areas accompanied by an increase in real wages which enable the working class to aspire to the consumption patterns of the middle class. New consumer products popular like televisions, refrigerators, cars.
Consumerism
Social order that encourages the attainment of goods and services
Women's liberation movement
Also called feminism, Women increasingly protesting that political and legal equality had not brought true equality with men
Simone de Beauvoir
A teacher turned novelist who was involved in the existentialist movement which brought her to political work. Wrote the book "The Second Sex" which stated that women had been defined by their differences from men.
Betty Friedan
A journalist and mother of three, published "The Feminine Mystique" which analyzed the middle class woman of the 50's, founded National Organization for Women
Permissive society
A critical term labeling the society following WWII and the Cold War that had its morals relaxed from the rigid code of the 1800's
Playboy
emerged in the 50's, adding a new dimension to the sexual revolution for men. A magazine that had a message of sexual gratification being able to be found outside of marriage
Birth control pill
wide spread use by the 1960's of this product gave more freedom in sexual behavior, a reliable contraceptive
Jackson Pollock
Abstract Expressionist painter who became famous for works like Lavender Mist. Employed swirling form and chaotic patterns
Abstract expressionism
This style of art was synonymous with the New York art scene
Andy Warhol
A famous artist of the Pop Art movement, the Soup can fella. Began as an advertising illustrator.
Pop art
Images of pop culture taken and used in creating fine art
Samuel Beckett
Irish playwright who lived in France, a strong proponent of "theater of the absurd"
Waiting for Godot
Beckett's play with unrealistic action on stage, "what is happening now?"
Existentialism
This philosophy reflected the sense of meaninglessness caused by two world wars.
Jean Paul Sartre
French existentialist philosopher, believed in the death of god meaning that humans had no destiny
Albert Camus
...French existentialist philosopher, who called the world absurd and without meaning, humans' only source of hope could be themselves.
Pope John XXIII
A charismatic pope who only reigned from 1958-1963. Sparked a revival of Catholicism by summoning the 21st ecumenical counciil
Ingmar Bergman
Swedish Director of "the Seventh Seal"
Francois Truffaut
French Director who experimented with subject matter more complex than Hollywood would attempt
Federico Fellini
Italian Director who experimented with subject matter more complex than Hollywood would attempt
Elvis Presley
Folkabilly musician who mixed R and B with Rock and roll
The Beatles
British rock and roll group
"peace and love"
Slogan used by hippies