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79 Cards in this Set

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The glorification of armed strength and the ideals of war; the belief that warfare is a good option to solve a country's political problems

Black Hand

A Serbian terrorist organization dedicated to the creation of a pan-Slavic kingdom. The Bosnian activist who assassinated Ferdinand was a member of this organization

Gavrillo Princip

This Black Hand terrorist was the assassin of the heir to the Austrian throne

the Schelieffen Plan

German plan to make a quick and decisive strike against France via Belgium, and then head eastward to defeat Russia

First Battle of the Marne

The battle along this river, in the summer of 1914, saw the French miraculously halt the German advance toward Paris and helped create the stalemate that became trench warfare; The Germans seemed on the verge of success, but had underestimated the speed with which the British would be able to mobilize and put troops into battle in France. An unexpected counterattack by British and French forces under French commander General Joseph Joffre stopped the Germans. The German troops fell back but the exhausted French army was unable to pursue its advantage. The war quickly turned into a stalemate as neither the Germans nor the French could dislodge the other from the trenches they had begun to dig for shelter

battles of Tannenberg and Masurian Lakes

when Russia moved into Germany, and lost these two battles

trench warfare

Warfare in which he opposing forces attack and counterattack from a relatively permanent system of trenches protected by barbed wire; characteristic of World War I

No Man's Land

The churned up area in between opposing trenches, which was littered with mines, barbed wire, dead bodies, packs of rats, and swarms of flies.; Land under dispute by two opposing parties, especially the field of battle between the lines of two opposing entrenched armies. Troops lived in holes in ground, separated from each other by a ____.

battle of Verdun

In 1916, the German high command decided to take the offensive against the French fortifications at Verdun, which was 125 miles east of Paris. This battle cost 700,000 lives and resulted in an exchange of only a few miles of land. The city of was subjected to massive artillery shelling and was severely damaged. Population of Verdun dropped from 15000 to 3000

battle of Somme

This battle at river in N france, in the summer of 1916, resulted in almost 60,000 British casualties in the first day. By the end, several months later, there were over one million casualties on both sides

Strategy for battle of Verdun and Somme

was: high command on either side would order an offensive to begin artillery barrage to flatten the enemies barbed wire and leave the enemy in a state of shock, then, the soldiers would climb out of trenches and try to work their way toward the enemy trenches, these attacks rarely worked

the machine gun

made it difficult to gain an advantage in trench warfare

poison gas

introduced by the Germans and was used by both sides during the war; caused vomiting, blindness, and suffocation

T.E. Lawrence (Lawrence of Arabia)

a British officer in the Middle East; incited Arab princes to revolt against their Ottoman overlords

the Lusitania

This sinking of this British cruise ship in May 1915 resulted in the deaths of more than 1,100 civilians, and helped sway American feelings against Germany and the Central Powers

unrestricted submarine welfare

German counterblockade in which the BritIsle was a warzone and germans would torpedo any ship in it


The British were the first to develop this modern weapon: a heavily armored vehicle that was impervious to machine gun bullets. Although not important militarily in WWI, it has become extremely important ever since

"total war"

Warfare in which all of a nation's resources, including civilians at home as well as soldiers in the field, are mobilized for the war effort


process of converting business or industry from private ownership to government control and ownership

Germany's War Raw Materials Board

headed by Rathenau, nationalized organization that allocated strategic raw materials to produce goods most needed to effectively supply Germans

Britain's Ministry of Munitions

nationalized organization to supply Brit with adequate supply of munitions under Lloyd George; took numerous steps to ensure private industry would produce war materials at limited profits; pwr to take over plants manufacturing war goods that weren't cooperating with the government

General Hindenburg and Ludendorf

2 popular german military heroes of war who controlled german government as military dictators; decreed system of complete mobilization for total war; auxiliary service law for all male noncombatants to work in jobs crucial to war efforts

Georges Clemenceau

The prime minister from 1917, he guided France through the end of the war, and represented France at the Versailles Conference as one of the Big Four.; Strong leader of the French war government (end of 1917); 'war is too important to be left to generals'; he established clear civilian control of a total war government

Ireland's Easter Rebellion

The violence that erupted in Ireland when members of Irish Republican Brotherhood and Citizens Army occupied government buildings in Dublin on Easter Sunday. British forces crushed this rebellion and condemned its leaders to death

Defense of the Realm Act (DORA)

Passed by British Parliament, it allowed public authorities to arrest dissenters to the war as traitors +censor

the Nineteenth Amendment

gave women the right to vote in the United States

Nicholas II

The last Romanov Tsar of Russia, he and his entire family were executed by the Bolsheviks in 1918, following the Revolution


The wife of Nicholas II, she fell under the influence of Rasputin


A Siberian peasant. Alexandra was fallen under his influence, who thinks of him as a holy man for he alone was able to stop bleeding of her hemophiliac son Alexis. He interfered in govn't affairs. Was assassinated in Dec. 1916 by conservative aristocrats


The capital of Russia at the time of the Revolution, its name was changed from St. Petersburg

the March (February) Revolution

In capital city of Petrograd (St. Petersburg), by the working-class women after the introduction of bread rationing. On March 8, 1917, 10,000 women marched through city, and called for a general strike. This caused the tsar to abdicate on March 15

"Peace, land, and bread"

The slogan of the Bolsheviks; Petrograd women shouted this slogan during International Women's Day


Councils of workers' and soldiers' deputies that formed throughout Russia in 1917 and played an important role in the Bolshevik Revolution.. Represented more radical interests of lower classes and were largely composed of socialists of various kinds


Like other Social Democrats throughout Europe, this socialist group in Russia wanted to work within the system to achieve a socialist state; One division of Marxist Social Democratic Party in 1903. They wanted Social Democrats to be a mass electoral socialist party based on a Western model. Like S.D. of Germany, were willing to cooperate temporarily in parliamentary democracy while working toward ultimate achievement f socialist state


Led by Lenin, they advocated violent revolution for Russia that would be led by an elite group of well-disciplined, dedicated revolutionary leaders who would bring communism to "Mother Russia."

V.I. Lenin

A follower of Karl Marx, he was the leader of the Bolsheviks and the first leader of the Soviet Union

the "April Theses"

Issued by V.I. Lenin on April 20. Based on his own version of Marxist theory. Thinks Russia could move directly into socialism w/o bourgeois revolution. In it, he maintained that soviets of soldiers, workers and peasants were ready-made instruments of power. B use them to overthrow Provisional Govt. at same time, B propaganda seek mass support through promises geared to needs of people

Army Order No. 1

Issued to all Russian military forces, it encouraged them to remove their officers and replace them with committees composed of "the elected representatives of the lower ranks" of the army

Alexander Kerensky

A Socialist Revolutionary, had become prime minister in the Provisional Govt. in July 1917 after abdication of Nicholas II. In sep. when General Kornilov's attempted to march on Petrograd and seize power, K released Bolsheviks from prison and turned to the Petrograd soviet for help. His action showed Lenin how weak the P. G. really was. He was overthrown by the Bolsheviks (October 1917) for his moderate policies

The Bolshevik Revolution

Bolsheviks against Provisional Government. And P. G. collapsed quickly after seize of Winter Palace on Nov 6-7. Kerensky - P.G. against Lenin & Trotsky.

Alexandra Kollontai

female supporter of revolutionary socialism who took lead in pushing Bolshevik program for women's rights and social welfare; minister of welfare; healthcare for womena dn children; est. women's burea known as zhenotdel within the communist party

the Zhenotdel

Established by Kollontai (a woman). It's a women's Bureau within the Communist Party. This organization sent men and women to all parts of the Russian Empire to explain the new social order. They were especially eager to help women w/ matters of divorce & women's rights. Some members were murdered by males. And it failed

Treaty of Brest-Litovsk

This treaty, signed by Russia and Germany in March 1918, ended Russia's participation in the war and was a great diplomatic victory for Germany.; On March 3, 1918, the new Communist gov't (by Lenin) signed this w/ Germany and gave up eastern Poland, Ukraine, Finland, and Baltic provinces. And this led to the civil war

Reds/ White Russians

reds= Bolsheviks vs. white anti blosheviks in Russian civil war

Leon Trotsky

This follower of Lenin was a master of organization, and because of his efforts at reorganizing the Red Army, helped the Bolsheviks win the Civil War.; A former Menshevik turned fervid revolutionary. A leader in Bolshevik Revolution. Lenin and he organized a Military Revolutionary Committee within Petrograd soviet to plot overthrow of the P. G.

"war communism"

Lenin's policy of nationalizing (government take-over) of industrial and other facilities and requisitioning (forced taking) of the peasants' produce during the civil war in Russia in order to ensure a Bolshevik victory

the Cheka

This "Red" secret police, unleashed by Lenin, eliminated all internal enemies of the Bolsheviks, which would set a precedent for the soon-to-follow Stalinist "purges" of the 1930s.

General Ferdinand Foch

French General who led an allied counterattack in the war in March 1918. They were supported by arrival of 140,000 fresh American troops, defeated the Germans at the Second Battle of the Marne on July 18

Second Battle of the Marne

Germans, led by Ludendorff against French General Foch. From March - July 1918. G wanted to have a grand offensive in the west to break the military stalemate. G were successful in advancing forty miles to Marne River, w/in 35 miles of Paris, but got defeated by Foch. William II capitulated to public on Nov. 9, while Socialists under Ebert announced establishment of republic

Armistice Day - November 11, 1918

A cease-fire; in the Great War it was signed on the "11th hour of the 11th day of the 11th month" - November 11, 1918

the Armenian Genocide

The deliberate, coordinated attempt to exterminate an entire people or ethnicity. The Armenians were subjected to this by the government of the Ottoman Empire in 1915; the Turkish government organized the department of the armenians in the Ottoman Empire and over a million were murdered or starved

Karl Liebknecht and Rosa Luxemburg

german leaders of independent social democratic radicals disgusted with war and favored an immediate social revolution carried out by councils of sailors soldiers and workers (German communist party)

the Free Corps

Groups of antirevolutionary volunteers that were called upon to crush the radical socialists trying to seize power in Berlin. They brutally murdered Liebknecht and Luxemburg

Woodrow Wilson's Fourteen Points

Summary of how President Wilson thought the war should be concluded; included the ideas of a just peace for Germany, self-determination for all nations, and the creation of a League of Nations


The doctrine that the people of a given territory or a particular nationality should have the right to determine their own government and political future. The Paris Peace Conference was supposedly guided by this

the Treaty of Versailles

Peace treaty between allies and germany. According to its terms, Germany had to return to Alsace-Lorraine to France, keep the Rhineland de-militarized, hand over all overseas colonies to the League of Nations, significantly limit its military, and pay huge reparations to the Allies

the League of Nations

The international organization, created by the Treaty of Versailles, which was supposed to help create a future in which there would be no need for war

the War Guilt Clause (Article 231)

Part of the Treaty of Versailles in which Germany had to admit complete responsibility starting the war, and for all losses and damage incurred by the Allies during the war


Payments made by a defeated nation after a war to compensate another nation(s) for damage sustained as a result of the war; required from Germany after the Great War in the amount of 32 billion dollars

"dictated peace"

How the Big Four basically cut down Germany's army, navy, and air force, as well as demilitarizing German land west of the Rhine to serve as a barrier to any future German military moves westward against France without giving germany any say in the matter


Serbia formed the nucleus of a new south Slav state, called __, which combined Serbs, Croats, and Slovenes

League of Nations' mandates

Quasi-colonial territories established under Article 22 of the Covenant of the League of Nations, they were originally territories controlled by the losing countries in World War I (Germany & the Ottoman Empire); control of these areas was granted to the Allies (mostly Britain & France) on a temporary basis; A system established after WWI whereby a nation officially administered a territory) mandate_ on behalf of the League of Nations. Thus, France administered Lebanon and Syria as mandates, and Britain administered Iraq and Palestine


"Either do this, or else!" -- What Austria-Hungary issued to Serbia after the archduke's assassination


Long-term causes of the Great War included militarism, nationalism, the alliance system, and ______


To prepare a country and its military for war

Archduke Francis Ferdinand of Austria

His assassination was an immediate cause of the Great War


This battle, in the summer of 1916, resulted in almost 60,000 British casualties in the first day. By the end, several months later, there were over one million casualties on both sides


Fighting along this front was known for its trench-style of fighting, which resulted in a stalemate and catastrophic loss of life on all sides

Two power rule

A good example of militarism during this time was the British government's "rule" which stated that the size of the British navy should be the same as the combined navies of the next two biggest navies in the world


The "powder-keg" of Europe


A military draft


Known in Germany as "U-boats," they were very effective at sinking unarmed cargo ships; British naval commanders considered their use to be sneaky and underhanded

Over the top

Slang term for charging out of your trench and racing across No Man's Land toward the enemy trenches

Big four

It consisted of David Lloyd George, Georges Clemenceau, Vittorio Orlando, and Woodrow Wilson

shell shock

A disorder of the mind and emotions caused by the trauma of modern warfare; it is now call PTSD

Central powers

Members included Germany, Austria-Hungary, Bulgaria, and the Ottoman Empire


Members included Great Britain, France, Russia, U.S., Japan, New Zealand, Canada, and Australia


To incorporate forcibly a country or other territory within the domain of a state; what Austria-Hungary did to Bosnia in 1908

total war

Warfare where all the resources of a nation are used to fight the war