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72 Cards in this Set

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Mikhail Gorbachev

Head of the Soviet Union from 1985 to 1991. His liberalization effort improved relations with the West, but he lost power after his reforms led to the collapse of Communist governments in eastern Europe

Gulf War

Iraq military forces suddenly occupied the small neighboring country of Kuwait,an international force led by the United States liberated Kuwait and destroyed a substantial part of Iraq's armed forces in the early months of 1991

New World Order

A description of the international system resulting from the collapse of the Soviet Union in which the balance of nuclear terror theoretically no longer determined the destinies of states

Leonid Brezhnev

he was the man in charge of the Soviet Union, he lived by the slogan "No experimentation", the years of his rule were relatively calm, in his economic policies, he continued to emphasize heavy industry

Brezhnev Doctrine

The right of the Soviet Union to intervene if socialism was threatened in another 'solcialist states'

perestroika

"restructuring"; One of Brobachev's radical reforms was this

glasnost

"openness"; One of the most important instruments of the perestroika

Commonwealth of Independent States

an alliance made up of states that had been Soviet Socialist Republics in the Soviet Union prior to its dissolution in Dec 1991

Boris Yeltsin

The president of Russia; after Gorbachev; Yeltsin committed to introducing a free market economy as quickly as possible. 1st president of Russia helped put down a coup in the wake of dissolution of Soviet Union

Vladimir Putin

elected president of Russia in 2000, launched reforms aimed at boosting growth and budget revenues and keeping Russia on a strong economic track

Chechnya

it was a breakaway state that Putin vowed to regain Russian authority over

Lech Walesa

Polish labor leader and statesman (born in 1943)

Solidarity

Independent labor movement led by Lech walesa; it represented 10 million of Poland's 35 million people; it became a tremendous force for change and a threat to the gov't's monopoly of power

Janos Kadar

the Hungarian government under him enacted the most far-reaching economic reforms in Eastern Europe, he legalized small private enterprises, such as retail stores, restaurants, and artisan shops, under his leadership, Hungary moved slowly away from its strict adherence to Soviet dominance and even established fairly friendly relations with the West

Vaclav Havel

Czech dramatist and statesman whose plays opposed totalitarianism and who served as president of Czechoslovakia from 1989 to 1992 and president of the Czech Republic since 1993 (born in 1936)

Czech Republic

its first president was Vaclav Hazel, it was made during the split of Czechoslovakia, it soon became one of Eastern Europe's most prosperous and politically stable countries

Slovakia

it was made during the split of Czechoslovakia, it suffered from political instability and sluggish economic growth

Nicolae & Elena Ceausescu

Leaders of the Communist government in Czechoslovakia. Romania leader was killed for genocide in the aftermath of fall of communist Romania govt.

Erich Honecker

In East Germany, he succeeded Ulbricht and was a party hard-liner who made use of the Stasi. East g. leader w/ an iron fist & opposed democratic reforms

Fall of the Berlin Wall

Violent repression as well as Honecker's refusal to institute reforms only led to a larger exodus and mass demonstrations against the regime in the summer and fall of 1989. By the beginning of November 1989, the Communist government had fallen into complete disarray. Capitulation to popular pressure on November 9, it opened the entire order with the West; Hundreds of thousands of Germans swarmed across the border

Slobodan Milosevic

The leader of the Serbian communist party in 1987; managed to stay in power by emphasizing his Serbian nationalism, rejected these efforts

Bosnia

it was recognized as independent in 1992, Serbian forces had acquired much of its land, its territory was gained back by renewed offensives of Muslim Bosnian government army forces and the Croatian army

Kosovo

Province within Yugoslavia by Marshall Tito in 1974; inhabitants mainly ethnic Albanians who were allowed to keep their Albanian language; also contained a Serbian minority who considered --- a sacred territory because it contained the site where Serbian forces had been defeated by the Ottoman Turks in the fourteenth century

"ethnic cleansing"

The policy of killing or forcibly removing people of another ethnic group; used by the Serbians against Bosnian Muslims in the 1990s

Ostpolitik

The policy of killing or forcibly removing people of another ethnic group; used by the Serbians against Bosnian Muslims in the 1990s

Helmut Kohl

Leader of Christian Democratic Union. Joined with Free Democrats to form a new govn't. He was a clever politician who benefited greatly from an economic boom in mid-1980s. Accomplished reunification during his administration - brought rich political dividends to the C. D. since the discontent w/ C. D. increased. Then faced with undesirable task of raising tax, which brought Social Democrats back to power. Elected chancellor of west G. in 1982. first chancellor of the re-unified Germany & was bedeviled by the massive scope of re-ingorating the East G. economy

Margaret Thatcher

Conservative. First woman to serve as prime minister in British history. Called "Iron Lady". Her administration was marked by anti-inflationary measures, a brief war in the Falkland Islands (1982), and the passage of a poll tax. Ended inflation, restricted union power, limited social welfare.

Thatcherism

Margaret Thatcher's economic policy

Falklands War

In 1982, when Argentina attempted to take control of the Falkland Islands (one of Britain's few remaining colonial outposts) 300 miles off its coast, the British successfully rebuked the Argentines, Had a great economic cost, and lost 225 lives, but had much popular patriotic support for Thatcher

Tony Blair

British Labour Prime Minister, 1997 to 2007; staunch American Ally on war against terrorism

Francois Mitterrand

President in France until 1995

Jacques Chirac

A rightist in France. Also a conservative mayor of Paris, he was elected president in 1995, replaced Mitterrand

Red Brigades

a Marxist-Leninist terrorist organizaiton that arose out of a student protest movement in the late 1960s

Mafia

a criminal society originated in Sicily, Italy, and is believed to control racketeering in the United States

European Community (EC)

expansion of the European Economic community when Great Britain, Ireland, and Denmark joined what its members now call the European community

the Maastricht Treaty

a treaty created in 1991 that set strict financial criteria for joining the proposed monetary union, with it single currency (euro)and set 1999 as the start date for its establishment

European Union

an international organization of European countries formed after World War II to reduce trade barriers and increase cooperation among its members

the euro

a common currency adopted by twelve EU nations in 1999, on January 1, 2002, it officially replaced twelve national currencies

Watergate

this scandal was the attempted bugging of Democratic National Headquarters

stagflation

a combination of high inflation and high unemployment that was prevalent in the United States and elsewhere from 1973 to the mid-1980s

OPEC

the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries, it made an oil embargo and increased prices of oil

Ayatollah Khomeini

the Iranian government under him took fifty-three Americans hostage

"supply-side economics"

it said massive tax cuts would supposedly stimulate rapid economic growth and produces new revenues, Reagan convinced Congress to rely on it

a "New Democrat"

Bill Clinton claimed to be this

Pierre Trudeau

he was the leader of the most prominent Liberal government in Canada, he was dedicated to Canada's federal union, his government passed the Official Languages Act that allowed both English and French to be used in the federal civil service, his efforts to impose the will of the federal government on the powerful provincial governments alienated voters and weakened his government

Helsinki Agreements

1975; these agreements provided yet another example of reduced tensions between the super powers. It was signed by the united states, Canada, and all European nations, these accords recognized all borders in central and eastern Europe that had been established since the end of WWII, thereby acknowledging the Soviet sphere of influence in Eastern Europe

"Star Wars"

Strategic Defense Initiative, President Reagan's SDI proposed the construction of an elaborate computer-controlled, anti-missile defense system capable of destroying enemy missiles in outer spaced. Critics claimed that SDI could never be perfected

IRA

Irish Republican Army. In Northern Ireland. Violence increased --- staged a series of dramatic terrorist acts in response to the suspension of Northern Ireland's parliament in 1972 and the establishment of direct rule by London. IRA terrorists were responsible for death of 2,000 people in N. Ireland; ¾ of the victims were civilians

Red Army Fraction

another name for the Baader-Meinhof gang in Germany, it consisted chiefly of affluent middle-class young people who denounced the injustices of capitalism and supported acts of revolutionary terrorism in an attempt to bring down the system

Charles Martel Club

it was a right-wing terrorist group in France, it used bombings to foment disorder and bring about authoritarian regimes, it received little or no public support, and authorities were able to crush them fairly quickly

September 11, 2001

when four groups of terrorists hijacked four commercial jet airplanes and flew them into the World Trade Center in New York City and the Pentagon near Washington D.C.

World Trade Center

the place in New York City that two hijacked airplanes flew into on September 11, 2001

Osama bin Ladin

the leader of al-Qaeda, he used an inherited fortune to set up terrorist training camps in Afghanistan, he was suspected of directing earlier terrorist attacks against the United States

al-Qaeda

the international terrorist organization that coordinated the acts of terror on September 11, 2001, it was led by Osama bin Laden

Saddam Hussein

he was the leader of Iraq, U.S. claims that he possessed weapons of mass destruction and had close ties with al-Qaeda were widely doubted by other members at the United Nations

war in Iraq

it happened because the U.S. suspected that Saddam Hussein had possession of weapons of mass destruction and close ties with al-Qaeda, the U.S. attack of Iraq was aided by little world support

"guest workers"

foreign workers working temporarily in European countries

the Chernobyl diaster

Soviet nuclear power disaster

Green parties

Most visible was in Germany, supported environmental issues and elected 42 delegates to the West German parliament in 1987.

Postmodernism

In the 1980s. It reacts against earlier modernist principles, as by reintroducing traditional or classical elements of style or by carrying modernist styles or practices to extremes. Weavers, potters, glassmakers, furniture makers have gained respect as artists.

serialism

Like serialism, this style uses repeated patterns and series and steady pulsation with gradual changes occurring over time. It's tonal and more harmonic

minimalism

Like serialism, this style uses repeated patterns and series and steady pulsation with gradual changes occurring over time. It's tonal and more harmonic

Gabriel Garcia Marquez

Columbian who received the Nobel Prize and wrote novels about generations of life in one family (One Hundred Years of Solitude ); magic realism style

One Hundred Years of Solitude

by Marquez, about generations of life in one family

"magic realism"

it combined realistic events with dreamlike or fantastic backgrounds, it was a literary style found in Latin America

Pope John Paul II

the first Pope born in Poland (born in 1920)

NASA

the National Aeronautics and Space Administration

Spirit and Opportunity

the two Mars rovers that NASA sent, they contained instruments that determined the chemical contents of rocks

MTV

it is a video music channel that radically changed the music scene by making images as important as sound in the selling of records

the Olympics, Tour de France, World Cup

they are sporting events that have become a global phenomenon due to the development of satellite television

Marshall McLuhan's "global village"

In the 1960s, the advances in mass communication, satellites and electronics would lead to a shrinking of the world, a lessening of cultural distinctions, and breaking down of cultural barriers, make the world into __________

NGOs

nongovernmental organizations