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65 Cards in this Set

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League of Nations

This organization was not particularly effective in maintaining peace; America had opted not to join, and its sole weapon for halting aggression was economic sanctions.

Little Entente

The alliance of Czechoslovakia, Romania, and Yugoslavia; this group allied with Poland and France, who no longer had an alliance with Russia, and was left alone after the United States and Great Britain failed to honor their promise to form a defensive military alliance; although these alliances appeared to be a good strategy to contain the status quo with Germany, the nations involved had, in reality, fundamental military weaknesses.

Dawes Plan

A new plan for reparations developed by an international commission headed by the American banker for whom it was named; under this plan, reparations were reduced, payments were stabilized based on ability to pay, and Germany was granted a $200 million loan to aid economic recovery.

Treaty of Locarno (1925)

1925 treaty between Germany and France which guaranteed Germany's new western borders with France and Belguim; viewed as the beginning of a new era of European peace.

Kellogg-Briand pact (1928)

Optimistic 1928 pact drafted by the American secretary of state and French foreign minister; under this agreement, 63 nations pledged to renounce war as an instrument of national policy.

Great Depression

Period of international economic crisis, beginning with the 1929 collapse of the American stock market, which brought unexpected political repercussions as governments attempted to deal with high levels of unemployment and social unrest; communism and fascism took on a new popularity as people looked for solutions to the crisis.

John Maynard Keynes

Economist who published his "General Theory of Employment, Interest, and Money" in 1936 in which he condemned the traditional view that in a free economy, depressions should be left to work themselves out; he believed that public works should be funded through deficit spending in order to create jobs and reduce unemployment; his ideas were largely ignored by British politicians.

the Popular Front

Left-wing French political party that was comprised of a coalition of the Socialists and Radicals; succeeded in initiating a program for workers which included a forty-hour week, paid vacation, and minimum wages; failed, however, to solve the problems of the depression.

Franklin D. Roosevelt

American president who pursued a policy of active government intervention in the economy, known as the New Deal; when these policies produced only a slow recovery, new, more radical, initiatives were introduced under the Second New Deal.

the New Deal

A policy of active government intervention that established multiple government agencies, including the FDIC to stabilize banking and the CCC to create employment opportunities through public works; a later policy created more public works jobs, established the Social Security program, and encouraged the growth of labor unions; these efforts, however, were unable to solve the problems of the Great Depression.


Name, meaning "Father Turk", adopted by Colonel Mustafa Kemal, who led Turkish forces in creating a new republic of Turkey in 1923; wanted to modernize Turkey along Western lines; introduced a state-run industrial system, adopted the Latin alphabet, established popular education and a secular government, and granted women the right to vote.

Mohandas Gandhi

India's "Great Soul", he established a movement based on nonviolent resistance whose aim was to force the British government to improve the lot of the poor and grant independence to India; called on his followers to follow a policy of civil disobedience by refusing to obey British regulations; although Britain resisted his movement, India was granted internal self-government in 1935.


System of government in which all aspects of economic, social, political, cultural, and intellectual life is controlled by the state; the individual is subordinate to the state, and is expected to be actively involved in the regime's goals.


A program of distorted information put out by an organization or government to spread its policy, cause, or doctrine; a tool of totalitarian governments.

Benito Mussolini

Fascist dictator of Italy; known as "Il Duce" ("the Iron Duce").

Fascio de Combattimento/facism

An ideology that exalts the nation above the individual and calls for a centralized government with a dictatorial leader, economic and social regimentations, and forcible suppression of opposition; outlined by Mussolini in this article appearing in the "Italian Encyclopedia".


Bands of armed Fascists used to create disorder by attacking Socialist offices and newspapers in Italy; supported by Mussolini.

the blackshirts

Fascist squads who squashed opposition and carried out Mussolini's plans through violence.

Acerbo Law

Law passed by the Italian parliament which stipulated that any party winning at least 25% of the votes in the next national election would automatically be alloted two-thirds of the seats in parliament; allowed Mussolini and his Fascist party to take control of the Italian state.

"Women into the home"

Fascist slogan; family was portrayed as the pillar of the state and women as the basic foundation of the family, expected to be homemakers and "baby producers"; female emancipation was viewed as "unfascist".

Lateran Accords of 1929

Agreement in which Mussolini recognized the sovereignty of Vatican City and established Catholicism as the state religion; in return, the papacy recognized the Italian state and encouraged Italians to support the Fascist regime.

Weimar Republic

German state established after WWI; plagued by a lack of strong leadership, attempted uprisings, and economic difficulties; these problems provided an environment in which Hitler and the Nazi party were able to rise to power.

Adolf Hitler

German Nazi dictator; characterized by extreme German nationalism, virulent anti-Semitism, and vicious anti-Communism.

Mein Kampf

'My Struggle", Hitler's autobiography, written while imprisoned after the Beer Hall Putsch; in it, he describes his influences and the ideology of his movement.

National Socialist German Worker's Party (Nazis)

Right-wing extreme nationalist party headed by Hitler; he worked assiduously to develop the party into a mass political movement with flags, badges, uniforms, a newspaper, and its own militia; in two years, party membership grew from hundreds to 70,000, becoming the strongest political group in Germany.


"Storm Troops"; Nazi police force, used to defend the party and break up meetings of other political parties.

The Beer Hall Putsch

Armed uprising against the Weimar goverment by the Nazi party; Hitler was arrested and sentenced to five years in jail; proved to be a major turning point in his career, reinforcing his faith in himself and his mission, and making clear the need to use constitutional means, rather than force, to gain power.


"Living space"; a doctrine, adopted by Hitler, that a nation's power depends on the amount of land it occupies; thus a nation must expand to be strong.


In Nazi Germany, a leadership principle based on the belief in a single-minded party (the Nazis) under one leader (Hitler); there was no tolerance for the discussion of ideas within the party.

the Enabling Act

Bill that provided the legal basis for Hitler's seizure of power; empowered the government to dispense with constitutional forms for four years while it issued laws that would deal with the country's problems.


The coordination of all institutions under Nazi control.


According to Nazi ideology, they they were the true and original creators of Western culture; modern-day Germans were the only "pure" successors; the development of an "pure" racial state that would dominate Europe was a primary goal of the Nazi party.

Hitler Jugend

"Hitler youth"; Nazi youth organization; founded on the belief that the early indoctrination of the nation's youth would lay the foundation for a strong totalitarian state.

Bund Deutscher Madel

"German Girls Association"; female Nazi youth organization.

Nuremberg Laws

Laws which excluded German Jews from German citizenship and forbade marriages and extramarital relations between Jews and German citizens; essentially separated Jews from the Germans politically, socially, and legally; the natural extension of Hitler's stress on the preservation of a pure Aryan race.


"Night of Shattered Glass"; Nazi-led destructive rampage against the Jews following the assassination of a secretary in the German embassy by a Polish Jew; synaogues were burned, Jewish businesses were destroyed, and at least 100 Jews were killed; 30,000 Jewish males were sent to concentration camps; under the direction of the SS, Jews were encouraged to emigrate from Germany.

New Economic Policy (NEP)

Policy estalished by Lenin in response to industrial collapse and agricultural disaster; a modified version of the old capitalist system in which peasants were allowed to sell their produce openly and small retail stores could operate under private ownership; heavy industry, banking, and mines remained under goverment control.


Committee that became the leading policy-making body of the Communist Party in Russia; engaged in a struggle for power following the death of Lenin.

Joseph Stalin

Communist dictator of the USSR following Lenin; eliminated the Old Bolsheviks and established a powerful dictatorship built on rapid industrialization, collectivization of agriculture, and the reversal of permissive social legislation that favored women's rights; used propaganda to further his agenda.

five-year plans

Stalin's plan to transform the Soviet Union from an agricultural country into an industrial state.

purges/purge trials

To strengthen his regime, Stalin put prominent Old Bolsheviks on trial and had them condemned to death; he sent those who resisted his objectives to forced labor camps in Siberia; an estimated 8 million Russians were arrested, and more than one million died in Siberian camps.

collectivization/collective farms

Stalin believed that the capital needs for industrial growth could be gained by creating agricultural surpluses by eliminating private farms in favor of these.

Francisco Franco

Spanish military leader who led military forces in a revolt against the anti-fascist government, inaugurating a brutal and bloody civil war; aided by the fascist regimes of Germany and Italy, his forces eventually captured Madrid; he established a traditional, conservative, authoritarian dictatorship.

Spanish Civil War

civil war in Spain in which General Franco succeeded in overthrowing the republican government

the BBC

British corporation created in response to the growth of radio broadcasting in the early 1920s.

Birth of a Nation

Full length American film produced shortly before WWI; made it apparent that cinema was a new form of entertainment for the masses.

Blue Angel

Early sound film which popularized new images of women's sexuality.


"Afterwork"; Mussolini's national recreation agency; established clubhouses with libraries, radios, and athletic facilities; allowed the state to impose new rules and regulations on previously spontaneous activities, enabling these groups to be guided by the goals of the state.

Kraft durch Freude

"Strength Through Joy"; Nazi program offering a variety of leisure time activties with the purpose of coordinating the free time of the working class; an example of the creation of a national culture that would replace traditional local popular culture.

Oswald Spengler's "The Decline of the West"

Indicative of the profound sense of disillusionment and despair felt by Europeans following four years of devastating war; this work emphasized the decadence of Western culture and posited its collapse.

Marie Stopes' "Married Love"

A best-selling book that emphasized sexual pleasure in marriage; an example of the change in attitude toward sexuality in the 1920s.


An artistic movement in the 1920s and 1930s by artists who were revolted by the senseless slaughter of WWI and used their "anti-art" to express contempt for the Western tradition.


An artistic movement that arose between WWI and WWII; portrayed recognizable objects in unrecognizable relationships in order to reveal the world of the unconscious.


The idea that the function of an object should determine its design and materials; a movement in modern architecture that held that buildings should fulfill the purpose for which they were constructed; all unneccessary ornamentation was to be stripped away.

Bauhaus School

German school of art, architecture, and design that emphasized functionalism; the study of fine arts was blended with the applied arts to create the buildings and objects of the future.

Kurt Weill's "Threepenny Opera"

Written by a struggling classical composer who turned to jazz and other popular music to attract a wider audience.

"degenerate art"

Nazi perception of modern art; also described as "Jewish" art; Hitler promoted his "new German art", which emphasized realistic scenes of everyday life, and was based on 19th century genre art; intended to inculcate social values useful to the ruling regime.

"socialist realism"

Artistic movement in the Soviet Union, imposed by the Stalinist regime; focused on a nineteenth century pictoral style aimed at realistic presentation; characterized by a stifling uniformity intended to inculcate social values useful to the ruling regime.

Arnold Schoenberg and atonal music

Viennese composer who began to experiment with a radically new style by creating musical pieces in which tonality is completely abandoned; introduced a new system of composition based on a twelve note scale.

James Joyce

Irish author who employed the "stream of consciousness" technique in his writing; his works include "Ulysess", which told the story of one day in the life of ordinary people by following the flow of their inner dialogue.

"stream of consciousness"

Writing technique in which the writer presents an interior monologue, or report of the innermost thoughts of each character.

Carl Jung

Disciple of Sigmund Freud; came to believe that Freud's theories were too narrow and reflected his own biases; asserted that the unconscious was an opening to deep spiritual needs and ever-greater vistas for humans; described a "collective unconscious" that was the repository of memories that all humans share, consisting of mental images, called archetypes, that appear in dreams.

Ernest Rutherford

Physicist who demonstrated that the atom could be split; dubbed the 1920s "the heroic age of physics", as humans had achieved a sufficient understanding of the atom to lay a foundation for the development of the atomic bomb.

Heisenberg's "uncertainty principle"

A principle in quantum mechanics that holds that one cannot determine the path of an electron because the very act of observing the electron with light would affect its location.


Communist International, a worldwide pro-soviet marxist parties formed by Lenin