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27 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Study of Tissues
Epithelial Tissue
Connective Tissue
Nervous and Muscular Tissue
Intercellular Junctions, Glands and Membranes
Tissue Growth, Development, Death and Repair
___trillion cells of ___different cell types
4 broad categories of tissues
epithelial tissue
connective tissue
nervous tissue
muscular tissue
structure with discrete boundaries that is composed of two or more tissue types
Histology (microscopic anatomy)
the study of tissues and how they are arranged into organs
a group of similar cells and cell products that arise from the same region of the embryo and work together to perform a specific structural or physiological role in an organ.
4 primary tissues differ from one another in the:
-types and functions of their cells

-the characteristics of the matrix (extracellular material)

-the relative amount of space occupied by cells versus matrix
matrix (extracellular material) is composed of:
-fibrous proteins
-a clear gell known as ground substance, tissue fluid, extracellular fluid (ECF), interstitial fluid, or tissue gel
Epithelia Tissue
consists of a flat sheet of closely adhering cells

one or more cells thick

upper surface usually exposed to the environment or an internal space in the body

covers body surface

lines body cavities

forms the external and internal linings of many organs

constitutes most glands

extracellular material is so thin it is not visible with a light microscope

epithelia allows no room for blood vessels

lie on a layer of loose connective tissue and depend on its blood vessels for nourishment and waste removal
Basement Membrane
Layer between an epithelium and the underlying connective tissue
Basement Membrane contains:

laminin and fibronectin adhesive glycoproteins

heparin sulfate
heparin sulfate
large protein-carbohydrate complex
basal surface
surface of an epithelial cell that faces the basement membrane
apical surface
surface of an epithelial cell that faces away from the basement membrane
simple epithelium
contains one layer of cells
named by shape of cells
all cells touch the basement membrane
Stratified Epithelium
contains more than one layer

named by shape of apical cells

some cells rest on top of others and do not touch basement
four types of simple epithelia
simple squamous

simple cuboidal

simple columnar

pseudostratified columnar
the simple epithelial cells named after their shape
simple squamous

simple cuboidal

simple columnar
simple squamous cell
thin and scaly
simple cuboidal cell
square or round
simple columnar cell
tall narrow cells
pseudostratified columnar
not all cells reach the free surface
shorter cells are covered over by taller ones
looks stratified
every cell reaches the basement membrane
goblet cells
wineglass-shaped mucus secreting cells in simple columnar and pseudostratified epithelia
simple squamous epithelium
-single row of thin cells

-permits rapid diffusion or transport of substances

-secretes serous fluid

-alveoli, glomeruli, endothelium, and serosa
Simple Cuboidal Epithelium
-single layer of square or round cells

-absorption and secretion, mucus production and movement

-liver, thyroid, mammary and salivary glands, bronchioles, and kidney tubules
Simple Columnar Epithelium
-single row tall, narrow cells
--oval nuclei in basal half of cell
--brush border of microvilli, ciliated in some organs, may possess goblet cells

-absorption and secretion; mucus secretion

-lining of GI tract, uterus, kidney and uterine tubes
Pseudostratified Epithelium
-looks multilayered; some not reaching free surface; all touch basement membrane
--nuclei at several layers
--with cilia and goblet cells

-secretes and propels mucus

-respiratory tract and portions of male urethra