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251 Cards in this Set

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rebirth of Classical (Greek and Roman) culture
Black Death
1348: the Bubonic and Pneumonic Plagues that destroyed 1/3 of European population
Hundred Years War
14th c. war between England and France which resulted in French territory being ceded back to France
Sworn associations of free men in Italian cities led by merchant guilds that sought political and economic independence from local nobles
Common Italian city-dwellers, disenfranchised and disillusioned
Rule of the few over the many
One-man rule in Italian cities
Christian Humanism
Italian humanism reinterpreted to fit Northern ideals and religious values
Literary movement stressing the gritty details of reality, rather than the idealized emotions of Romanticism
Artistic technique used to create the illusion of three-dimensional space in two-dimensional art
Popular art style in the Italian Renaissance, exaggerating shapes and heightening colors to dramatize a scene.
The ability to shape the world to one's own will
Habsburg-Valois Wars
Holy Roman Empire vs. France in Italy
Girolamo Savonarola
Reactionary Dominican friar who ruled Florence for a period, during which he called for the burning of all sinful things in the "Bonfires of the Vanities."
Cesare Borgia
The illegitimate son of Pope Alexander VI, he helped his father reassert control over the papal states.
Francesco Petrarch
Early Renaissance scholar infatuated with the classical era, started classicism movement
Leonardo Bruni
Humanist historian in Renaissance Florence.
Platonic Academy
An informal series of lectures to the cultural elite of Florence by the scholar Marsilio Ficino. Topics: Classical literature and philosophy
Giovanni Pico della Mirandola
Christian Humanist thinker, author of On the Dignity of Man
On The Dignity of Man
Essay linking Christian and classical texts to posit that man, made in God's image, is capable of great dignity and accomplishment
Leon Battista Alberti
"Renaissance man": novelist, playwright, inventor, architect, author of various studies and treatises
Thomas More
English humanist, author of Utopia
Desiderius Erasmus
Dutch humanist who authored The Praise of Folly, exalting the simple, natural Christian faith of children
Florentine painter and pioneer of realism
Renaissance sculptor, revived the classical figure
Classical figure
Idealized form of the human body, found in Classical and Renaissance sculpture and art, with an emphasis on balance and motion
Fillipo Brunelleschi
Renaissance architect, focused on proportion and visual harmony
Roger van der Weyden
Flemish Renaissance painter
Jan van Eyck
Flemish Renaissance painter
Raphael Sanzio
Top-notch Renaissance painter, opened school of and wrote book on art
York and Lancaster
Two ducal houses of England who fought each other in the Wars of the Roses.
Henry VII
English King (r. 1485-1509) who left his kingdom prosperous and at peace.
English legislature, comprised of House of Lords and House of Commons
Isabella of Castile
Spanish queen (r. 1474-1516), married to Ferdinand of Aragon, completed reconquista of Spain. Spain was politically, though not culturally, united under their reign,
Ferdinand of Aragon
Spanish king (r. 1474-1516), married to Isabella of Castile, completed reconquista of Spain. Spain was politically, though not culturally, united under their reign,
New Christians
Jews and Muslims in 14th century Spain who had converted to Christianity.
Spanish investigations of Jew-to-Christian converts, established 'blood' idea of Anti-Semitism. Expected by no one.
Renaissance idea of the glory and potential of human beings
Shift away from the Church and towards worldly life, as seen in Renaissance Italy.
Local, current language, as opposed to dead languages such as Latin.
The Courtier
Book by Baldassare Castiglione detailing how a noble should act- perpetuated the ideal of the "Renaissance man"
Baldassare Castiglione
Author of The Courtier
Leonardo Da Vinci
Inventor, artist, original Renaissance man.
Prolific Renaissance artist
Dante Aligheri
Author of the Divine Comedy, a Christian poem that also criticized the Church
Author of The Prince, a how-to guide for absolute rulers.
Machiavellisms to know:
-You gotta know when to be a fox and when to be a lion
-It's better to be feared than loved
The Prince
Book by Niccolo Machiavelli. Advice on establishing absolute authority.
Johannes Gutenberg
Inventor of the printing press and movable type.
Jan Hus
Early Protestant leader, starting around 1400. Decried the sale of indulgences, denied the authority of the pope, called for translations of the Biblie into the vernacular.
John Wyclif
Wrote that scripture alone should be the basis of Christianity. Inspired many future Protestants, including Jan Hus and Martin Luther King.
Followers of John Wyclif
Belief that all denominations of Christianity should look past differences and unite
French skeptic, pioneered the art of the essay (yayyy) with such works as 'Of Cannibals,' which posited the idea that all races might be equal, just different
Peace of Augsburg
Officially recognized Lutheranism as a religion in 1555, allowed each territory to pick their own religion between Catholicism and Lutheranism, ending religious war in Germany for some time to come
John Knox
Founded the Presbyterian Church of Scotland
Pope Paul III
Reformed the Church from within
Holy Office
Official Roman Catholic agency founded in 1542 to combat international doctrinal heresy
Catholic order founded by Ignatius Loyola, spread Catholicism worldwide, grew to hold powerful political influence
Catholic and Prostestant moderates who supported a strong monarchy as the only way to uphold order in France
Johann Tetzel
Prolific salesman of indulgences in the Catholic church
Radical Protestants, believed in adult baptism
Henry of Navarre (Henry II)
French king 1547-1559, signed the Treaty of Cateau-Cambresis, ending the Habsburg-Valois wars
Ursaline nuns
An order of nuns emphasizing education for women
Growing wave of anti-clergy feeling on the dawn of the Protestant Reformation
The practice of one clergyman holding and profiting from multiple positions in the Church
"Faith alone, grace alone, salvation alone"
Major tenet of many Protestant religions, emphasizing the direct role of God and the Bible in the salvation of souls, rather than the established church
John Calvin
Founder of Calvinism, which emphasized the infinite might of God and the complete powerlessness of humans (predestination)
The Praise of Folly
Book praising the simple and instinctual Christian faith of children
On Christian Liberty
Treatise by Martin Luther containing the key tenets of Lutheranism- 'faith alone, grace alone, salvation alone'
The belief that the bread and wine at Communion magically transforms into the body and blood of Christ
Charles V
Emperor of the Holy Roman Empire, called the Diet of Worms
Diet of Worms
1521- Assembly of the nobility, clergy, and cities of the Holy Roman Empire. Martin Luther made an appearance, and refused to recant his ideas, which thus found a wider audience,
Pope Clement VII
French Pope during the Great Schism, in competition with Pope Urban VI, the Italian Pope
Gustavus Vasa
(r. 1523-1560) Swedish king, took control of church personnel and income
Ulrich Zwingli
Swiss Protestant leader, believed in importance of Scripture above all else
Thomas Cranmer
Archbishop in the Anglican Church, wrote the simplified Book of Common Prayer.
Thomas Cromwell
Key advisor to King Henry VIII, encouraged him to dissolve English monasteries
Book of Common Prayer
Simplified Anglican theology, written in common, elegant English
The idea, key to Calvinism among other Protestant religions, that God has decided all men's fates ahead of time
Ignatius Loyola
Founded the Jesuit order of the Catholic Church
Index of Prohibited Books
List of books banned by the Vatican as part of the Counter-Reformation
Saint Bartholomew's Day Massacre
Savage attack on Huguenots (French Calvinists) in Paris on August 24, 1572, the day of the royal wedding of Catholic Margaret of Valois to Protestant Henry of Navarre
Edict of Nantes
Issued by Henry IV, allowed Huguenots freedom of worship in 150 fortified towns
Union of Utrecht
Alliance of seven northern provinces that declared its independence from Spain and formed the United Provinces of the Netherlands
French Calvinists
Spanish Armada
Fleet sent by Phillip II of Spain against England in a religious crusade against Protestantism, crushed by weather and the English fleet
Council of Trent
Intermittent general council called by Pope Paul III, aiming to reform the Catholic church and reconcile with Protestants (which did not work out.)
Elizabeth I
Protestant Queen of England, required all subjects to attend services in the Church of England, but didn't try to dictate their private beliefs
Peace of Westphalia
Ended the Thirty Years' War in the Holy Roman Empire
Thirty Years' War
Religious conflict in the Holy Roman Empire between the Protestant Union and the Catholic League
Martin Luther
Aimed to reform the Catholic church, ended up starting his own (Lutheranism) and contributing to the start of the full-on Protestant Reformation in a big way.
Practice of selling high positions in the Catholic church
Church officials not even showing up for their jobs
THe opinion that the Catholic and Protestant churches should just work through their differences
Henry VIII
King of England, broke away from Catholicism and formed the Anglican Church so he could get a new wife.
Or five.
95 Theses
Martin Luther's airing of grievances with the Catholic church. He had a lot of issues with those people, especially concerning the sale of indulgences.
German Peasant Revolt
Uprising in part instigated by the sweeping Protestant reformation, though Luther himself disapproved highly of the revolting peasants
Anne Boleyn
Henry VIII's second wife, executed after failing to produce an heir
Mary Tudor
Catholic Queen of England, took the throne after the Protestant Edward VI, executed several hundred Protestants (hence "Bloody Mary.")
Scottish interpretation of Calvinist reform ideas
Extreme reformers who wanted to 'purify' the Church of England by removing all Catholic influences
Catherine of Aragon
Henry VIII's first wife, who failed to bear him a son. Her connections to Emperor Charles V, whose troops were controlling the Vatican at the time, prevented Henry from getting an annulment within the Catholic church.
Edward VI
Henry VIII's heir and successor. His brief reign saw increased Protestant influence in England.
Discoverer of the New World, under Spanish employ.
Notable explorer, led a voyage that circumnavigated the world
Spanish emissary sent to explore and conquer the New World.
Advanced new ship of the fifteenth century, faster and more navigable.
Treaty of Tordesillas
1494 agreement that drew a line down the Atlantic and gave Spain everything to the west, and Portugal everything to the east.
Hernando Cortez
Spanish conquistador who took Mexico.
Francisco Pizarro
Spanish conquistador who took the Inca Empire.
Magnetic compass
Chinese invention which, when introduced to Europeans, allowed for better overseas navigation.
Instrument which allowed navigators to accurately determine their latitude
Prince Henry the Navigator
Portuguese prince who played a key role in supporting exploration and navigation.
Prester John
Mythical Christian king in Africa, the search for whom inspired European expeditions.
Bartholomew Diaz
Portuguese explorer in the Age of Exploration
Vasco da Gama
Portuguese explorer in the Age of Exploration
Amerigo Vespucci
Italian navigator who realized that Columbus had discovered a new world
Native inhabitants of Hispaniola when Columbus arrived there
The four administrative units into which Spain divided its New World possessions
First permanent English colony in the New World
Spanish royal officials in the New World who possessed considerable authority, responsible only to the monarch overseas.
Encomienda system
Spanish system allowing conquistadores to enslave natives.
Bartholome de Las Casas
Franciscan monk who challenged the encomienda system in use by Spain in the New World
Mixed-race progeny of Spanish and Indian parents
Child of a Spanish and an African parent.
The mindset that all assumed knowledge could and should be called into question
A genre of writing pioneered by Michel de Montaigne, which synthesized the author's ideas and supported them with various evidence.
Open Field System
Agricultural system in which the village as a whole would sow and plow the fields, planting the same crops at the same time, which provided enough food for everyone but led to soil exhaustion
Three Field System
System of crop rotation using beans, grain, and root crops ,which prevented soil exhaustion.
Agricultural Revolution
Period from the mid-1600s to the mid-1800s in which massive agricultural developments were made.
Fenced-off fields which marked the end of the open-field system and displaced thousands of peasants by closing them off from their work.
Low Countries
Collective name for Belgium, Holland, and the Netherlands, which joined England in the Agricultural Revolution.
Jethro Tull
Innovator in the Agricultural Revolution, popularized the selective breeding of livestock.
Selective Breeding
The process of only allowing the best livestock to breed in order to produce the best possible offspring
The transformation of large numbers of small peasant farmers into landless rural wage earners in the Agricultural Revolution (England and the Low Countries)
Cottage Industry
Peasants taking on small work in their own homes
Putting-out system
Economic system wherein merchants sent out raw materials to peasants who would work in their own homes and then give back the manufactured goods they'd produced.
A peasant woman who would spin wool at home- came to mean an unmarried old woman, as married women generally did not spin.
Industrious Revolution
Shift of peasant families from subsistence work to production for sale
Anne-Robert-Jacques Turgot
French minister who worked to reform the French economy
Economic Liberalism
Belief in free trade and competition, championed by Adam Smith.
Navigation Acts
Series of English laws controlling the import of goods to Britain and its colonies
Treaty of Paris
Treaty that ended the Seven Years' War in Europe and the colonies in 1763 and ratified British victory on all colonial fronts.
The Common
Green square around which a pre-Agricultural Revolution village usually centered. Eradicated with the enclosure movement.
The movement to end slavery
Guild System
Established business system of Europe from the 13th to 18th centuries, wherein guilds (trade-based associations of artisans) received a monopoly over their respective trades, and the exclusive rights to train new workers.
Wealth of Nations
1776 book penned by Adam Smith promoting free trade and establishing economic liberalism.
William Shakespeare
Important English playwright of the Elizabethan era (16th century). Explored the whole of the human condition in his numerous works, at least two of which you'll probably skim through on SparkNotes before graduating high school.
Samuel Champlain
French explorer in Canada, founded Quebec
Mexica Empire
Aka the Aztec Empire, a large and complex Native American civilization in modern Mexico and Central America in possession of advanced technology and knowledge
Pedro Cabral
Found and claimed Brazil for Portugal
John Cabot
Merchant who discovered Newfoundland.
(Fun fact: though he lived in London, John Cabot was Italian. Also, his name wasn't even John Cabot; it was Zuan Chabotto, but that was too much of a mouthful. This information will likely never come in handy, but hey, now you know.)
Jacques Cartier
Frenchman who explored the St. Lawrence region of Canada.
Seven Years' War
War between France and England in America, which pretty much ended French colonial claims in central North America.
Dutch East India Company
Dutch monopoly on the spice trade in the Indes
Anglo-Dutch Wars
Three wars between 1652 and 1674 wherein the English attacked and eliminated the Dutch as serious economic rivals.
Columbian Exchange
The exchange of animals, plants, and diseases between the Old and New Worlds
Contract Theory
Theory of government stating that the people offer up their obedience to the government in exchange for order and protection
Long Parliament
Parliament (called by King Charles) that sat from 1640 to 1660, during which time it enacted legislature limiting the power of the monarch without Parliament
Art style of the Counter-Reformation, ornate and dramatic, with a high emphasis on emotion and religion.
Military dictatorship established in England by Oliver Cromwell after the execution of Charles I, lasted from 1653 to 1658.
Triennial Act
Act passed by the English Parliament in 1641, compelling the monarch to call Parliament every three years.
Radical reformers who wanted to 'purify' the Church of England of all ties to Catholicism
James I
Successor of Elizabeth I to the throne of England, believed in the divine right of monarchs in general and himself in particular. Reigned 1603-1625.
Charles I
Successor and son of James I, reigned England from 1629 to 1649, when he was executed. Hated Parliament, believing they interfered with his divine right to absolute power.
1651 treatise by Thomas Hobbes establishing social contract theory, wherein the people submit to an absolute ruler, who will establish order and make their lives less "nasty, brutish, and short."
English Civil War
1642-1649, war between the king (Charles I), and Parliament, whose New Model Army defeated the king and went on to serve Oliver Cromwell, who took power.
Rump Parliament
The remaining members of English Parliament after Oliver Cromwell dismissed all those who opposed him, tried and executed Charles I for high treason.
Fear and hatred of foreigners
French uprisings occurring 1648-1653, which saw both noble rebellion and general riots in protest of the Crown's autocratic measures. Left the then-child king, Louis XIV, determined to avoid rebellion.
Sword/Robe Nobles
The old, traditional nobility (swords) whose families had born their titles for generations, contrasted with the new nobility (robes) who bought their titles.
Cardinal Richelieu
French Prime Minister from 1628 to 1642, strengthened the infrastructure of the crown and repressed Protestantism in France.
Cardinal Mazarin
Prime Minister of France during the time of the Fronde, triggered by his own attempts to further absolutize the French government.
Jean-Baptiste Colbert
Louis XIV's controller general, applied mercantilism to France with brilliant results
Thomas Hobbes
Political theorist and author of Leviathan, which posited the "social contract" theory that order and safety could only exist if people surrendered their wills to an absolute ruler.
(Fun Fact: Yes, the tiger actually is named after Thomas. The author of Calvin and Hobbes wanted Hobbes to present a somewhat cynical view of life and humanity, like Hobbes the political theorist.)
Don Quixote
One of the first true novels, written by Miguel Cervantes, following the adventurous antics of a delusional "knight" and his loyal squire.
Top Russian nobles
Prussian nobility
Russian former peasants who fled to the woods, forming bands of sundry rogues, rebels, and outsiders.
Ivan IV (the Terrible)
Absolutist Russian tsar (r. 1533-1584) who blew away the last remnants of Mongol power in Russia, solidified the power structure, and laid the foundations for the multi-ethnic Russian empire that was to come.
Fun fact: in the original Russian, his moniker translates more literally as "Ivan the Awesome," or "Ivan the Awe-Inspiring," but neither of those had quite the same punch in English.
Test Act
Enacted by the English Parliament in 1673, this act denied those outside the Church of England the rights to vote, hold public office, preach, teach, attend the universities, and assemble for meetings.
Could not be enforced.
Charles II
English king (r. 1660-1685) enthroned in the Restoration of 1660. He accepted a yearly 200k pound bribe from Louis XIV (king of France) in exchange for gradually re-Catholicizing England, which caused a massive scandal and wave of anti-Catholic feeling when it was revealed.
Louis XIV
The Sun King and the original absolutist monarch, Louis XIV (r. 1643-1715) rebuilt the power structure of France around his glorious self. His opulent palace at Versailles was the hub of court and culture not just in France but in all of Europe in the prime of his 72-year reign.
Louis XIV's extravagant palace, symbolized his power and majesty over nobles and all of court life.
Sun King
A name for King Louis XIV of France, the shiny guy around whom everyone orbited.
Glorious Revolution
The replacement of Catholic James II by his Protestant daughter Mary and her husband Prince William of Orange as rulers of England.
Called 'glorious' because no blood was shed; James and his family fled in 1688; William and Mary were crowned in 1689.
James II
Catholic king of England (r. 1685-1688) who frightened anti-Catholics by appointing Catholics to government positions and granting freedom of religion to all. For these crimes as well as seeming to extend absolutism, he was chased off the throne in the Glorious Revolution in 1688
William and Mary
Protestant king and queen of England, replaced James II in the Glorious Revolution in 1689.
Divine Right
The idea that monarchs have been given God's stamp of approval to rule over others.
Frederick William "the Great Elector"
United Prussia under his own rule, which he strengthened substantially during his reign.
Frederick William I
"The Soldiers' King" of Prussia (r. 1713-1740), truly established absolutism in Prussia and built up a military power as well as a remarkably honest and efficient bureacracy.
Frederick William I was not actually the first ruler of Prussia named Frederick William. His grandfather was Frederick William the Great Elector, so why the grandson got an I after his name is something of a mystery. It may be because the Great Elector was never actually a king, whereas F.W.I was. It may also be because there was an accident with a time machine and a contraceptive. Who knows?
Ivan III (the Great)
The Great Prince of Moscow (r. 1462-1505) who expanded Moscow towards the Baltic Sea, stopped paying tribute to Mongol khans, and declared his rule autocratic.
Johann Sebastian Bach
Great Baroque composer whose dramatic, dynamic music exhibited religious might and secular emotion.
Peter Paul Rubens
Famed Baroque painter whose sumptuous style was trademarked by a penchant for fleshy nudes.
Pugachev Rebellion
Serf uprising led by Emilio Pugachev in Russia in 1773, marking the end of Catherine the Great's liberal, Enlightened stance.
Navigation Acts (1651)
A series of English laws controlling the import of goods to Britain and British colonies (woo mercantilism!)
Left-wing political party of England in the early 1800s.
Right-wing political party of England in the early 1800s.
Millet system
System used by the Ottoman Empire wherein subjedts were divided into different religious communities, each given self-government.
Ruler of the Ottoman Empire, owned all the agricultural land of the empire and was served by an army and bureaucracy of highly trained slaves
Janissary corps
Core of the Ottoman army, composed of non-Muslim slaves until 1683, when it became a volunteer corps
The belief that monarchy should be replaced or limited by a written constitution establishing rights and a system of state.
A form of government wherein there is no monarch, and power rests in the hands of the people via elected representatives.
Executive officer in each of the United Provinces of the Netherlands, a position often held by the princes of Orange.
John Locke
English philosopher whose Second Treatise of Civil Government maintained that a government's purpose was to protect its people's 'natural rights' to life, liberty, and property.
Peter the Great
Ruled Russia from 1682 to 1725, built up and improved the Russian army, which he tested against Sweden in the Great Northern War of 1700-1721.
Great Northen War
Waged between Russia, Denmark, & Poland on one side and Sweden on the other. Lasted from 1700 to 1721, Sweden made unexpected victories early in the war, sending Russia off to bulk up its army to come back and make a conclusive victory in 1721, taking Estonia and Latvia under Russian rule.
Heliocentric Theory
The radical idea, espoused by Copernicus, Galileo, and other malcontent firebrands of the 17th century, that the Earth and all the other planets orbited the sun- not the sun and all the other planets going around the Earth, and certainly not the sun and all the planets going round and round the garden like a teddy bear.
Andreas Vesalius
Flemish physician (1493-1541) who studied anatomy via dissecting human bodies.
Francis Bacon
English politician-philosopher whose writings championed a scientific, empirical approach that sought new knowledge through physical experiments rather than abstract reasoning.
Fun Fact: Bacon died of pneumonia after stuffing a dead chicken full of snow. He was attempting to study the effect of cold temperatures on the preservation of meat. So, the next time you take leftover meatloaf out of the fridge, think back to that brave pioneer Francis Bacon, who sacrificed himself for science. (You're welcome.)
Experimental Method
The system of conducting experiments for knowledge rather than just speculating. Made complete and solid by Galileo Galilei.
Law of Inertia
Law formulated by Galileo stating that motion, not rest, was the natural state of objects, thereby disproving good chucks of Aristotelian physics.
Galileo Galilei
Italian nobleman (1564-1642) who questioned the world's notions of physics and motion, formulated the law of inertia, developed the experimental method, and made great leaps towards proving the heliocentric theory. His support of Copernicus earned him prosecution from the Catholic Church, of which he was a devout member.
Copernican Hypothesis
The idea that the sun, not the earth, was the center of the universe. Right in that the sun is the center of our solar system- wrong in that it's not the center of the universe.
On the Revolutions of Heavenly Spheres
Treatise by Copernicus establishing a heliocentric hypothesis- that the Earth and the other planets revolved around the sun, which was fixed in place. It was only published after his death, due to his fears of being ostracized by the scientific and religious communities of the day.
Tycho Brahe
Danish astronomer (1546-1601) whose mountain of meticulously gathered data proved much more helpful than the clumsy math he attempted upon that data. It was his belief that all the planets but the Earth revolved around the sun, and then the sun and all the other planets revolved around Earth.
Fun Fact: Brahe lost a good chunk of his nose as a college student, in a sword duel he'd gotten into over the issue of whether or not a particular mathematical formula was legitimate. For the rest of his life, he wore a replacement nose made (supposedly) out of silver and glued onto his face. Man must have really cared about that mathematical formula.
Fun Fact Number Two (Tycho Brahe was a really fun guy): Tycho had a pet tame elk. It died when it got drunk and fell down a set of stairs, according to a letter penned by Brahe.
Natural Philosophy
Early modern term for the study of the nature of the universe, its purpose, and how it functioned. Encompassed what we would call 'science' today.
Rudolfine Tables
Tables of planetary motion compiled by Tycho Brahe
Johannes Kepler
Bright young astronomer (1571-1630) who took the data gathered by Brahe, and used it to figure the orbits of all planets.
Cartesian Dualism
The view, espoused by Rene Descartes that all the universe can be reduced to mind and matter
Act of Supremacy
Declared Henry VIII head of the Anglican church
Law of Universal Gravitation
Newton's law that all objects are attracted to one another and that the force of attraction is proportional to the objects' quantity of matter and inversely proportional to the square of the distance between them.
Theory of inductive reasoning that calls for acquiring evidence through observation and experimentation rather than reason and speculation
Deductive Reasoning
System of figuring things out via observation and experimentation
Inductive Reasoning
System of figuring things out via reasoning and speculation, rather than experimentation
Isaac Newton
English scientist who discovered the law of universal gravitation, among other things
Rene Descartes
1596-1650. Influential thinker who espoused mathematical investigation, used deductive thinking to formulate the theory of Cartesian dualism
Robert Boyle
1627-1691. Formulated Boyle's Law, governing the pressure of gases.
William Harvey
1578-1657. Discovered the circulation of blood.
Nicolaus Copernicus
Theorized that the sun, not the earth, was the center of the galaxy.
Swiss physician and alchemist (1493-1541) who was an early supporter of the experimental method of medicine, and pioneered the use of chemicals and drugs as medicine.
Principia Mathematica
Text by Isaac Newton which consolidated new astronomy, new physics, and mathematics into one sound whole.
Art style of the enlightenment, characterized by soft focus, warm pastels, and idyllic subjects.
Philosophical revolution following the scientific and intellectual revolutions of the 17th century. Major themes: rationalism, secularism, optimism, freedom, & tolerance.
Thinkers of the Enlightenment, centered in France
Faith in logical reasoning based on facts
Gatherings of philosophes in the Enlightment, often held by wealthy middle-class women in their posh homes, where art, politics, faith, reason, and season were discussed over tea and snacks.
Religious movement resulting from Enlightened thought, emphasizing personal, emotional connection to God
French philosophe and satirist who attacked the Church and the social structure in particular, promoting liberty, rational thought, and tolerance.
Enlightened Despotism
Flavor of rule birthed by the Enlightenment, wherein one person/family still held all the power, but used it for the people's good.
Catherine the Great
Ruler of Russia (r. 1762-1796) who pursued a policy of enlightened despotism until the Pugachev rebellion in 1773 convinced her that the common people could not be trusted with liberty.
View that monarchy was the best form of government, that all elements of society should serve the crown, and that the state should use its power for the public good.
Reading Revolution
Drastic increase in literacy rates in the Enlightenment era, wherein reading became a commonplace activity rather than a stuffy, patriarchal pastime.
David Hume
Leading figure of the Scottish Enlightenment, author of Of Natural Characters, which typified new ideas on race re: everyone non-white is inferior.
Denis Diderot
(1713-1784) Editor of Encyclopedia: The Rational Dictionary of the Sciences, the Arts, and the Crafts, an Enlightenment text intended to spread thought and knowledge through a massive audience.
Public Sphere
Idealized intellectual space that emerged in Europe in the Enlightenment, where the public came together to discuss political, social, and economic issues.
Immanuel Kant
Enlightenment thinker (1724-1804) who wrote on logic, metaphysics, moral philosophy, and how all non-white races were innately inferior.
Illegitimacy Explosion
Major boom in the amounts of babies born out of wedlock in the Enlightenment.
Jean-Jacques Rousseau
Enlightenment thinker (1712-1778) who wrote The Social Contract about how the sovereign power should be governed by the 'general will.' Rousseau also wrote about the importance of good parenting and the need for a strict division and obedience of gender roles.
James Beattie
Scottish philosophe (1735-1803) who spoke out against the prevailing views of white superiority.
Blood Sports
Common pre- and early Enlightenment entertainment for the common people, included bareknuckle boxing, cockfights, dogfights, etc.