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37 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
Agricultural Revolution
17th-18th centuries, peasants SOL same as medieval
LATER increased crop production, feed more people
Methods of cultivation improve
selective breeding of livestock
Open field system
soil exhaustion on common land, let rand rest for year or 2
Villages: open meadows for hay and pasture
Cornelius Vermuyden
Dutch drainage techniques
English do the same later
Charles Townsend
Turnip\English ambassador to Netherlands
brought Dutch innovations home to England
Nitrogen rich crops (turnips) to replenish soil, feed to livestock
Drained marshland, crop rotation
No slaughter prior to winter
Crop rotation
Using turnips to replenish soil
Charles Townsend
Replaced open field system
Jethro Tull
seed drill: sown in straight lines, not scattered
Empiricism in agriculture
Use horses not ox to plow
Seed Drill
Jethro Tull
Seeds sown in straight lines, not scattered
Robert Bakewell
selective breeding of livestock
healtheir, more meat/wool/leather/soap/maure
Enclosure Movement
18th Century
Landlords consolidated scattered holdinings into fenced fields
Common pasture lands enclosed, ended open field system
Commercialization of agriculture
Parliament, 3000 Enclosure Acts
Corn Laws
high tarriffs placed on foreign grain, drove up price of grain in England
Monopolistic comp
Population Explosion
Agricultural revolution means more food
New food
Better roads and canals, improved food transport
Better diets, more variety, better immune system
Cottage industry, putting out system
Cheap countryside labor challenges guild
Wool cloth: single most important product
Cottage industry
part of putting out system
Proto Industrialism
Wool made in home by spinsters
Flying shuttle
John Kay 1733
reaper needed only one hand to throw shuttle back and forth between threads
Spinning Jenny
James Hargreaves
mechanized spinning wheel
water framed
Richard Arkwright
steam power on looms
spinning mule
Sam Cromptom
Combine best features of spinning Jenny and Water frame
Atlantic Economy
18th Century: European maritime expansion
Sugar, world trade, self sufficient nations
build up large reserves of gold
most important trade commodity in Atlantic trade
Bank of England
capital for economic development
Act of Union
unified England and Scotland
trade benefit for Scots
English Navigation Act
Increase military pwoer, private wealth
First: Cromwell, reduce Dutch domination of Atlantic trade
Most goods on British ships with British crews
British merchants: monopoly on trade with colonies
Triangular Trad
England, American colonies, Carribean, Africa
Columbia Exchange
Dutch Empire
Middle class Burghers dominated politics
Golden age: first half of 17th Century
Religious toleration, decentralized government
Anglo-Dutch Wars
3 destructive wars
1664: New Amsterdam taken by English, renamed NY
Slave Trade
growth of Atlantic trade
10 million Africans transported to New World in 17th-18th Centuries
Half on British ships
Chartered company monopolies (Royal African company)
Middle Passage
20-30% slaves died
Horrible conditions
South Sea Bubble
1719: British government gave South Sea Company rights to take over British debt
Monopoly over slave trade with Latin America
Company expected to make profit on interest collected from gov on debt
Converted into stock shares
Speculator frenzy, bubble popped in 1720
Large scale financial crisis
Mississippi Bubble
Mississippi Company had monopoly on French trade w/ Louisiana
Took on national debt
Stock prices up, collapse
War of Spanish Succession
French and Spanish superpower threat
Threat to Britain in North America
ended with Treaty of Utrecht
Treaty of Utrecht
France lost Newfoundland, Nova Scotia, Hudson Bay to GB
Spain lost asiento, British get to bring 1 ship to Panama for trade
7 Years' War
French and Indian War
Ohio Valley
GW and troops engage French at Fort Duquesne
William Pitt (British PM) focused on North America
British win, French leaves
Ended with Treaty of Paris
Treaty of Paris
Ended 7 Years' War
France no longer major colonial power, lost Canada, possessions east of Mississippi to GB, west to Spain
Spain looses Florida to British
Britain is dominant world power
American Revolution
France and Spain give money and military to colonies, weaken British empire
colonies: most valuable colonial possessions of British
Spaniards of Latin America
20% of American population
European style aristocracy in Latin America
children to Spanish fathers, Native American mothers
30% of population