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21 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Commercial Revolution
Revolution in Commerce
Flying shuttle, spinning jenny, etc
Machines get too big for cottage
Bubble Act
respected to allow creation of joint-stock companies
Lowes Act
allowed for limited liability for business owners
James Watt
First efficient steam engine
Chemist, new steam engine
Moved condenser to fix it
Most fundamental advance in technology
Steam power replace water power in mills
Radical changes in manufacturing, transport
Henry Cort
Puddling Furnace
pig iron refined with coke
1850 England produced half of world's iron
Duke of Bridgewater
forefront of canal movement
Canals connect other waterways, railroads
John McAdam
hard-surfaced roads
bigger in over-land travel
Robert Fulton
2-way river transport possible
New class of factory workers in industrial society
Frederick Engles
"Condition of Working Class in England"
Blamed middle class for exploiting proletariat
Later became revolutionary with Karl Marx
Northern England
violent group of angry workers who blamed industrialism for threatening their jobs
beginning in 1812 attacked factories and destroyed new machinery they believed was putting them out of work
Combination Acts
prohibited labor unions
reaction inspired by fear of something like French Revolution occurring in England
ignored by most
repealed in 1824, unions became tolerated by 1825 (part of society
Robert Owen
1834: Grand National Consolidated Trades Union
Scottish industrialist: firm discipline with real concern for workers conditions
made a school for workers children at his own expense
The Chartists
Labor concessions through political democracy
Universal male suffrage
Saddler Commission
Investigated working conditions, helped initiate legislation (by parliament) to improve conditions in factories
Factory Act
Limited workday for children 1-13 to 8 hours a day
ages 14-18 limited to 12 hours a day
Can't hire children under 9
Attend elementary schools factory owners required to establish
Credit Moblier
best example of an Industrial bank
In France
Mines Act of 1842
Prohibited boys and girls under the age of 10 from working underground
birth of factory towns: cities grew into large industrial centers
largest population growth in human history
Irish Potato Famine
1845-1846 crop failure, again in 1848, 1851
Fever epidemics
Food price up, suffereing, social unrest
1.5 million dead/went unborn
1840-1855 2 million left Ireland, went to US, Britain