18th And 18th Century Essay

1277 Words 6 Pages
During the late 18th century and early 19th century, Industrial Revolution changed many aspects of life, with immense and far-reaching effects. In this transformation, British agricultural revolution was instrumental in the develop-ments that took place both in rural areas and in urban cities. Early-modern econ-omy became more efficient with the increase of trade and with the switch of workers from land to industries, which were possible only thanks to high agricul-tural productivity. The increase in food supply stimulated population growth in England. from 5.5 million in 1700 to over 9 million around one century later. New technologies, urbanization and the modernization of rural institutions were the pillars of Industrial revolution. Nonetheless, …show more content…
The organization of ag-ricultural production shifted from open fields to enclosed pasture by surrounding fields with walls. Most of the medieval common land of England was lost and the newly enclosed lands became restricted to the owner. Spring grains cultivat-ed in enclosed villages yielded about one-third more than open villages, by im-proving drainage systems in heavy arable districts . During 18th century, a series of Parliamentary legislation were introduced. English agriculture became domi-nated by consolidated landholdings and peasant cultivation was replaced by cap-italist farming. With Parliamentary enclosures, many small landholders had to sell their land to larger ones and this resulted in large consolidated holdings. En-closed fields were under the control of the owner and their main interest was to increase their own benefits, by investing in capital to save on labour, by introduc-ing economies of scale and looking for new ways to increase yields. Harnessing more animal power decreased demand for farm labour and consequently, by re-leasing labour from agriculture, the share of workers available for commercial manufacture increased. Moreover, small holders were forced out from rural areas and moved into cities where they became the labourers in the Industrial

Related Documents