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50 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
appealed to upper classes and peasants wwho were frightened by the violence and terror of French Revolution
Bourgeoisie posed biggest threat to conservatism
Burke's "Reflections" most famous defense of conservatism
Carlsbad Diet
1819 Metternich calls together this
Carlsbad Decree: materials that advocated unification were censored
Liberals driven underground
Decembrist Umprising
Jnior military officers of Russia wanted constitutional government, prevent Nick from taking power
first major theory in Western thought, saw individual as self sufficient, freedom and well being sole reason for existence in society
Iron Law of Wages
Iron Law of Wages
wages will rise ONLY to substinence level
Jeremy Bentham
utility of any law or institution should be based on whether it provides "Greatest good for greatest number"
supported poor laws
On Liberty
John Stuart Mill
Absolute freedom of opinion should be protected from censorship and tyranny of majority
cultural self unity, government
common beliefs caused by comon language, history, etc
French Rev, Napoleonic Wars
Greek Revolution
Enland, France, Russia join greeks to defeat Egyptian, Ottoman forces (because of religion)
Eastern Question
who would fill void when Ottomans (Sick old man of Europe) lost European territory?
Treaty of Adrianople
Greek autonomy recognized after Russians defeateed Ottomans
Louis Philippe
Bourgeoisie king of France, led them in July Revolution of 1830
Led constitutional monarchy: Orleans family
France now controlled by bourgeosis bankers/businessmen
Guiseppe Mazzini
Carbonari advocated nationalism
He led secret revolutionary society known as Young Italy which was crushed
Liberal English political faction
Reform minded
Egnlish political group
Earl Grey is one
Earl Grey
British Prime MInister 1830
support from middle class
doubled franchise from 6 to 12 percent
Corn Laws
repealed in 1846
Anto-Corn Law LEague
formed by Richard Cobden and John Bright and argued for lower food prices
Revolutions of 1848
Only Brits, Russians avoided upheavals
Neither conservatives nor liberals gained final upper hand
End of serfdom in Austriia and Germany, universal male suffrage in France
Parliaments in some German sstates, unification movement in ITaly
Second French Republic
led by Lamartine (liberal allied bourgeosise)
Emerged from February Revolution in France
Louis Blanc socialist leader demanded work for unemployed
national workshops craeted
other reforms
protected Mazinni (young italy) and Roman Republic
Professional revolutionary
Led Red Shirts
Louis Kossuth
Magyar (hungarian) leader
demanded independence
Cacech inh Bohemia declared autonomy
3 northern Italian provinces to doo
Hungarian armies make it to Vienna (Metternich fled city)
Authority restored
Led by Louis Kossuth
Frakfurt Parliament
Liberals, nationalist, romantic leaders meet in 1848 and call for elections
Bund to unify for a Constitutional monarchy, Prussian king as king
Frderick William IV
Frankfurt Parliament wanted him as their constitutional king
he rejects it, claiming divine right, etc.
Humiliation of Olmutz
Prussia forced to drop plan for German unification, left Austria as dominant state in the Bund
emphasis on human emotion, senses, faith
rejected Enlightenment view of nature as prcise harmonious whole
Rejected Deism
Encouraged personal freedom
Sturm and Drang
storm and stress
Used by German romantics to communicate emotional intensity
(and Whilhem?)
German idealist
Dialectic: thessis, antithesis, synthesis
Thesis: initial idea
Antithesis: opposing view, clash
Synthesis: hybrid of 2 ideas
"Tinturn Abbey"
Romantic poet from England
Rim of Ancient Mariner
Brother in law to Wordworth
English romantic poet
Inflfuenced by Rosseau
Ordinary language to idealize simple subjects
Lord Byron
"Don Juan"
"She Walks in Beauty..."
Fought in Italy against Austria for Carbonari
Died fighting in war for Greek independence
"Prometheus Unbound" tells story of revelot of humans against repressive society
Seemed to criticize excesses of romanticism
Fiaust sold his soul to devil to experience every human emotion
"Sorrows of Young Werther"
Good character, bad circumstances, romantic hero
Victor Hugo
Hunchback of Notre Dame
Les Miserables
Romanticism through strange settings, human emotions
Eugene Delacroix
"Liberty Leading the People" (in French Revolution)
Viva la Vida
Romantic artists
bridge between classical and romantic music
human voices in symphony (ode to joy)
first composers not limited by patronage
inner human emotion in music
Frederic Chopin
showcased Polish folk songs and dances
Franz Liszt
native Hungarian musician
Hungaian Rhapsody
Piano virtuoso (greatest) in mid 19th Century
symphonic poem: single movement
Antonin Dvorak
Folk music of Bohemia
Guiseppi Verdi
greatest Italian opea composer
Richard Wagner
Greatest German Opea composter: German myths, legends, Verdi considered greatest opera composer of 19th Century
desire for new sense of community
increasing misery of working class
republicanism: capitalism, promote selfishness, social fragmentation
no broad support for social justice until 19th Century
Charler Fourier
argued for planned economy and socialist communes
described socialist utopia in mathematical detail
supported emancipation of women
Friedrich Engles
helped develop Marxism
Karl Marx
Communist Mannifesto: socialist bible
Replace utopian hopes with militant blueprint for working class success by dialectical materialism
COmmunist Manifesto
By Karl Marx
Socialist Bible
Dialectical Materialism
Dialectical Materialism
economic interpretation of history
class struggle
theory of surplus value
extra profit after labor is "stolen"
socialism is inevitable
classless society
"from each according to his abilities to each according to his needs"