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33 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Holy Roman Empire
In decline due to:
Religious wars of 16th, 17th Century
German split into 300+ religiously diverse provinces
Ottoman Empire
Built on expansion
1560: decline in Western expansion, disintegration of empire
Sultan keeps power by rewarding conquered territory to loyalty, military service
expansion checked by Russian, Austrian expansion
"Sick Old Man of Europe"
Suleiman the Magnificent
Most powerful European in 16th century
1529: conquered most Austria, Serbia, Balkans, Hungary, partrs of Russia
Janissary Corps
Christian slaves (not talented enough for beauracracy) served loyally in Turkish army
Once powerful, undone by liberum veto
Divided between Russia, Austria, Prussia in 3 separate "Partitions of Poland" in 1770s, 1790s
Disappears from map by 1800
early modern period: revived, reimposed in Eastern Europe
Bohemia, Silesia, Hungary, eastern Germany, Poland, Lithuania, Russia
Black Death makes labor shortage, nobles demand movement frozen
The Robot
labor obligation of "free" (non-serf) peasants to give 3-4 days of labor a week to local lord w/out pay
Liberum Veto
voting in Polish Parliament had to be unanimous to change anythhing
Led to Poland's downfall
Austrian Empire
Hapsburg: Ruler, HRE
Naples, Sardinia, Milan (in Italy)
Austrian Netherlands (Belgium)
Hungary and Transylvania (Romania)
Czech nobility wiped out
Ferdinand II redistributed Czech lands to aristocratic soldiers from all over Europe
Serf conditions declined
Largest part of Austria Proper
Serfdom intensified
Leopold I
Jesuit influence, restricted Protestantism
Defended Vienna from Ottoman Turks in Seige of Vienna
Hapsburg Austrian Ruler
Siege of Vienna
Austria protected from Ottoman Turks by Leopold
Ruled by Hohenzollerns
"Sandbox of Europe"
Brandenburg: one of 7 HRE electors
Rulers of Prussia, started with Frederick William (Great Elector)
Frederick William, Great Elector
Hohenzollern ruler of Brandenburg
Nephew of Gustavus Adolphus
Well educated
Religiously tolerant Calvinist
Industry, foreign trade
Local governments, central gov in Berlin
Dominated Prussian military officer corps
Nobility of the Sword (Prussia)
Dominated estates of Brandenburg and Prussia
Frederick William I
"Soldiers" King
Most important in building Prussia absolutism
Army: 45,000 to 80,000
Militarism: part of Prussian society: virtue
Sparta of the North
Result of Prussian militarism under Frederick William I
Most important principality of later Russia
Rulers: difficult in centralizing
One prince of Moscow
Russian military
Ivan III (the Great)
Ended Mongol domination of Russia
Established himself as hereditary ruler of Moscovy
Moscow: new center of Orthodox Church: 3rd Rome
Leader of Orthodox Church
Ivan IV (The Terrible)
Grandson of Ivan III
married a Romanov
expanded territory: Black Sea, Far East, Baltic Region
25 unsuccessful wars against Poland/Lithuania
25 years of required military service
Time of Troubles
Died without heir
Outlaw armies, attacked sporadically
Result of shitty conditions of peasants/serfdom
Time of Troubles
Under Ivan IV
Period of war, power struggles, and famine in Russia
Sweden and Poland conquered Moscow
Romanov Dynasty
Semski sobor: estates general, elected them
Michael Romanov in 1613
Favored nobles to gain support
Ruled from 1613-1917
Expanded Russia to Pacific
Old Believers
Insisted all efforts to westernize were bad
persecuted by the government
protested by burning themselves to death
Peter the Great
7 ft tall, strong
Toured parts of Europe in "disguise"
determined to westernize Russia
Beard Tax
The Revolt of Strelski
Moscow guard
Successfully overthrown previous leaders
Window on the West
Latvia and Estonia in Baltiic Sea after Treaty of Nystad
St. Petersburg: warm water port
St. Petersburg
Similar to Amsterdam
Winter Palace
1725: largest city in Northern Europe
Capital of Russia
Construction began in 1703
Conscripted peasant labor
Winter Palace
Baroque palace of Peter the Great in St. Petersburg
Russian Versailles
Pragmatic Sanction of 1713
Legal mechanism designed to ensure that the Austrian throne and Habsburg lands would be inherited by Emperor Charles VI's daughter, Maria Theresa.