Unit 2 study guide Essay

8643 Words Apr 21st, 2014 35 Pages
1. Review the anatomy of the brain. Which portion is responsible for keeping you awake, controlling thought, speech, emotions and behavior, maintaining balance and posture?
Emotions and behavior are controlled by the hypothalamus (p.455)
The cerebellum is responsible for maintaining balance and posture (p.455)
The reticular formation is essential for maintaining wakefulness and in conjunction with the cerebral cortex is referred to as the reticular activating system (p.450)
The Broca speech area is rostral to the inferior edge of the premotor area on the inferior frontal gyrus. It is usually on the left hemisphere and is responsible for the motor aspects of speech. Damage to this area leads to expressive aphasia or dysphasia (p.452)
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Small fiber input inhibits cells in the substantia gelatinosa and “ opens the pain gate” enhancing pain perception. The CNS, through efferent pathways, may also close, partially close, or open the gate. (p.482)

7. Know the type of nerve fibers that transmit pain impulses.
Medium sized A delta fibers are stimulated by mechanical deformation (mechanonociceptors) and/or extremes of temperature(mechanothermal nociceptors) Occurs quickly. Carry well localized, sharp pain sensations and are important in initiating rapid reactions to stimuli (fast pain).
Mechanical, thermal, and chemiacal nociception are transmitted by excitation of polymodal nociceptors and are carried on small unmyelinated C fibers. The small unmyelinated C polymodal nociceptors are responsible for the transmission of the diffuse burning or aching sensations that follow (slow pain). (p.483)
Table 15.1
Location of Receptor Provoking Stimuli
Skin Pricking, cutting, crushing, burning, freezing
GI tract Engorged or inflamed mucosa, distention or spasm of smooth muscle, traction on mesenteric attachment
Skeletal muscle Ischemia, injuries of connective tissue sheaths, necrosis, hemorrhage, prolonged contraction, injection of irritating solutions
Bone Periosteal injury, inflammation, fractures, tumors
Joints Synovial membrane inflammation
Arteries Piercing, inflammation
Head Traction, inflammation, or displacement of arteries,

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