Uthman ibn Affan

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    Quraish, if they liked it, his poetry becomes his pride and is hanged on the corner of the Kaaba so that it may be seen , but if they do not like it no one cares about it”. However on the other hand oral composition or orals in general dictated the transportation of Arabic literature and poetry. With that in mind Uthman picked up the necessity of reserving the oral literature and engraving it in solid matter -in an official manner too- due to the vast populations of people entering Islam or under Islamic rule from all different social and religious backgrounds in the expanded Muslim Caliphate , in order to ensure the reservation of the true writings of the Quran and that the way people comprehended it and understood it was sound. Thereupon there were many consequences to this great contribution by Uthman.” (The Qur 'an) was memorised by Mohammed and then dictated to his companions, and written down by scribes, who cross-checked it during his lifetime. Not one word of its 114 chapters (suras) have ever been changed over the centuries. (Understanding Islam and the Muslims, The Australian Federation of Islamic Councils Inc. (pamphlet) Nov. 1991).In addition to its reservation Uthman made sure that the official version was to be printed and sent all over the corners of the Caliphate which had a great impact on…

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    Mansa Musa, the man with the famous legend of his haji to Mecca. He had lived from 1280 to 1337, and was the fourteenth century Mali Empire emperor. In 1312 Musa became emperor following the death of the previous ruler of Mali, Abu-Bakr II. Mali was an empire in West Africa that lasted from 1230 to 1600 and under Mansa Musa’s rule it became the largest and richest area of Africa. As Ruler of Mali he had captured the kingdom of Songhai and made its most major city, Timbuktu, a very vital and…

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    Which shows that the Islamic faith did indeed spread into various regions, along with the trade of merchandise. Ibn Battuta travels mid-thirteenth century as a religious seeker with the company of merchants’ journeying to Mali, an Islamic powered country governed by Mansa Sulayman. Being in Walata, Battuta is shocked to see that men and women can have affairs without anyone getting jealous, and are shameless of this practice. The women are more respectable than men, and do not veil themselves.…

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    scientific experimentations was first introduced by the Greeks in the 2nd century. In the article Scutti says, “Early Greek physician-scientists performed experiments on living animals. They conducted experiments in the areas of anatomy, physiology, pathology, and pharmacology” (Scutti). The Greeks examined sensory nerves, motor nerves, and tendons in order to better understand their functional differences. With animal testing they were able to identify the best instruments to use during…

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    that can replace animal testing. Including QSARs, which are a computer-based technique that estimates a substances likelihood of being hazardous. They do this based on its similarity to existing substances along with our knowledge of human biology. Lastly human volunteers have also been used in the place of animal tests. They use a method called “microdosing”. They give volunteers an extremely small one-time drug dose, the drug is then monitored by imaging techniques. Alternative…

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    Ibn Battuta Research Paper

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    Ibn Battuta was a Muslim scholar who travelled the known world in the fourteenth century. The son of a qadi, or Muslim judge, he was born in Tangier, Morocco, to a wealthy family of scholars. At the age of 22, having finished his education, Ibn Battuta went on a pilgrimage to Mecca in the year 1325. After reaching Mecca, he decided to continue travelling, which he did for the next 29 years of his life. During these years, Ibn Battuta met many rulers and held important positions in foreign lands.…

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    While it is easy for one to give up on their goals and move on, one can truly show strength by conquering the various challenges on their way to success. Homer’s, The Odyssey, is able to depict how persistence can lead to fulfillment. Homer’s purpose in the epic poem The Odyssey is to show society that though there are setbacks in life, one can overcome them with perseverance by employing katabasis by emphasize the various struggles Odysseus faces. Homer utilizes katabasis initially to…

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    Being one of the greatest cities of West Africa, Mali made a lasting on the Silk Road with their history, geography and trade. There were more differences than similarities between the two. Things such as geography are obviously different but there is more to it like history and trading. The Silk Road started at 200 bc while Mali was founded before 1000 ad. The Silk Road traded slaves, spices, cloth, and other goods. Mali traded gold mainly but other goods as well. A clear difference is, the…

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    Gulliver's Travels Summary

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    Gulliver’s Travels Book Review Gulliver’s Travels Jonathan Swift 322 pages Published in 1726 Genre: fantasy and satire. Gulliver’s Travels contains four books. The first book shows Lemuel Gulliver’s journey after he was separated from his crew when his boat was destroyed. He landed on Lilliput. This island was full of people who were only six inches tall. He passed out on the shore of the island once he landed, and he woke up to find himself tied down to the ground. The people were…

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    how close the protagonist comes to death, but how the protagonist handles their suffering. This essay will compare Ibn Ibn Battuta and Joinville in how they handle the physical suffering of their protagonists, from Ibn Ibn Battuta pushing through multiple fevers to make it to Mecca, to Joinville holding his sickened priest upright to finish his Mass. Ibn Ibn Battuta was a known, famous…

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