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  • Catalyst Layer Essay

    Recent studies have been directed toward multi objective optimization of fuel cell systems. For example Mert, Feali and Ang et al. conducted multi objective optimization for direct methanol fuel cell (Mert and Özçelik 2013), microfluid fuel cell (Feali and M. Fathipour 2014), and PEM fuel cell systems (Ang, Brett and Fraga 2010), respectively. Hereafter, studies about multi objective optimization of fuel cells at the scale of system stopped and research has shifted toward a synthesizing a non-precious catalyst and improving determination of methods of effective CL parameters. For instant Park et al. did empirical tests to optimize the CL composition of NG based non-precious metal catalysts. They showed that electrodes with 66.7% and 50% of Nafion had the best performance as an oxidant in oxygen and air respectively (Park et al. 2015). Finally Malko et al. applied EIS test to determine the main parameters on CL performance and then they prepared a simple flowchart for CL optimization with the least number by trial and error (Wilkinson et al. 2010). As shown, recently multi objective optimizations have been progressing in many sciences including energy and fuel cells, but so far they have not been conducted for the most complex and important part in a fuel cell, the catalyst layer. Also all the performed multi objective optimizations carried out on platinic catalyst even about fuel cell systems. Hence it is necessary to apply the multi objective optimization based on…

    Words: 987 - Pages: 4
  • Analysis Of TRGO

    solution and substitute on the microelectrode. Series connected distributed sensing electrodes were fabricated and patterned with TRGO added platinum nanoparticles (PtNP), chitosan-enzyme composites, and nafion, which were integrated onto the modified surface for effective glucose sensing. The fabricated biosensor demonstrated good amperometric response to glucose with a sensitivity of 41.18 μA/mMcm2,…

    Words: 1692 - Pages: 7
  • Victrex Peek Essay

    2. Experimental Section 2.1 Materials Victrex PEEK (grade 450G), purchased by Victrex PLC (England) was used as the base polymer. Kynar flex 2801, PVDF-HFP (11-12% of hexafluoropropylene copolymer) was supplied by Arkema, Japan. Organically modified nanoclay, C 30B with a cation exchange capacity (CEC) of 90 meq/100 g was procured from M/s Southern clay Products. Conc.H2SO4 (98% pure) used as sulfonating agent was supplied by Merck lab grade. The catalysts, Pt black for the cathode and Pt/Ru…

    Words: 1313 - Pages: 6
  • Benzosuberone Essay

    Several catalytic reagents and different conditions were applied for increasing the yield under mild reaction conditions such trifluorormethane-sulfonic acid at room temperature with 93% yield [17]. Friedel-Crafts intramolecular cyclization using Nafion-H in various solvent(s) under reflux temperature yielded 83% [18]. Aluminum trichloride and triethylamine in carbon disulfide were used also and afforded the benzosuberone (2) with 90% yield [19]; additionally, 5-phenylpentanoic acid (6) was…

    Words: 855 - Pages: 4
  • Phosphorus Recovery Essay

    applied voltage to 1.2 V decreased the precipitation rate. Increasing the applied voltage to 1.2 V prevents microorganism activity and increases the batch duration. The precipitation rate was influenced by batch duration, which decreased with applied voltage (Cusick and Logan, 2012). The concentrations of P and Mg in cathode influent were approximately 3 mm, and struvite precipitates when the molar ratio of NH4 : Mg : P in the solution is 1:1:1 at an alkaline condition (pH > 8). Figs. 4 and 5…

    Words: 983 - Pages: 4
  • Ptfe Lab Report

    kV and 40 mA. The crystalline sizes of Pt alloy particles on the carbon supports were calculated from the XRD patterns by using Scherrer’s equation [23]. TEM images and the two-dimensional mapping of each element by scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) were obtained using a G2 FE-TEM Tecnai microscope at an accelerating voltage of 200 kV. The content of Pt alloy catalyst in the supported catalysts was obtained by ICP-AES (RF source: Jobin Yvon 2301, 40.68 MHz). X-ray photoelectron…

    Words: 1386 - Pages: 6
  • Operating Principles In PEM Fuel Cell

    The Nafion membrane belongs to a class of poly-perfluoro-sulfonic acids, and consists of a hydrophobic tetrafluoroethylene backbone with pendant side-chains of perfluoronated vinyl-ethers terminated by sulfonic acid groups. Proton conductivity in Naffion and most other polymer electrolytes increases with the water activity and that is the main reason to humidify the incoming gas reactants. Sufficient water must be absorbed into the membrane to ionize the acid groups, whereas excess water can…

    Words: 1940 - Pages: 8
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