Falsifiability

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    In the course of achieving scientific understanding, it becomes necessary to distinguish between what can be proved and what cannot. Falsifiability is a necessary tool in making that distinction between what can be verified and what cannot, while also providing a criterion between pseudoscience and science. Though it’s not perfect, it’s a solution that works for the time being in creating scientific discoveries and refuting incorrect information. In the beginning of human discovery, there is as Plato writes, “[A man] compelled to look straight at the light,” and after receiving pain from the sun he will turn away to what he can see, which results in him making a choice between the new reality and the former (Plato, 215). Fundamentally, this…

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    A better hypothesis are very risk, since it forbids other possibility of the nature and decreases the randomness of the future, so it is somehow close to the uniformity of the nature. The truth is exclusive. A good hypothesis is also exclusive, which eliminates other possible outcomes and is incompatible with other hypothesis. Hence for a better hypothesis which is exclusive, the number of potential falsifier are numerous. The huge number of potential falsifiers represent the high degree of…

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    Popper started by stating that, induction and empirical methods are the first step for identifying a scientific theory. Induction method involves generation of principles from particular facts whereas, empirical method involves generating idea based on experiments or an observation. Based on Popper’s beliefs, these two methods alone cannot differentiate between science and pseudo-science. So, Popper indicated that, the criteria for demarcation between science and Pseudo-science was an idea of…

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    Karl Popper Falsification

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    theme to logical positivism. A claim is empirically verifiable if observation and experimentation produce statements which logically imply the truth of the claim. Popper rejected the logical empiricists' ideas given that “verificationism” does not allow for claims within a universal scope to be subject to verification.1 This is because there are so many permutations of approaches to verifying something claimed by science. Opposite to this, a universal claim can be falsified by a single negative…

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    support their theory. It is important to note that Carnap was an infallibilist, who believed that singular propositions, such as one’s observations, have absolute certainty. However, he stated that all general synthetic propositions, or in other words empirical theories, are fallible. Therefore, he was able to say that one can trust his observations to be reliable in verifying a theory. Wording choice of philosophers is very important and one cannot ignore Popper’s use of the word…

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    Essay On Demarcation

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    The “criterion of demarcation- the criterion of testability, or falsifiability, or refutability- is far from obvious; for even now its significance is seldom realized” (Popper, 39). For Paul Thagard’s view problem on demarcating science is that “it introduces social and historical features as well as logical ones…the criterion is not based on verification and falsification” (Thagard, 223). The demarcation criteria of astrology have three key ideas: “theory, community, and historical context”…

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    “pseudoscience.” This was also known as the “problem of demarcation” that Popper wants to point out. He basically states that Marx’s Theory of History, Freud’s psychoanalysis, and Alfred Adler’s so called “Individual Psychology” were pseudoscience–posing as science. In addition, he claims that he was dissatisfied with these theories because of how doubtful their claims are to the scientific status, and how they have more common with myths than science. However, there is one theory which he…

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    induction. Induction is defined as an intuitive mental process that begins with observation, which produces general principles and laws. Induction can be paired with deduction because laws, obtained by induction, can be used as assumptions, which can aid when making predictions of unobserved events and providing explanations of already observed events. Due to the constant seeking of patterns in nature and direct perception using intuitive reason, this process is defined as rational. Therefore,…

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    there happens to be a distinction between the contexts of discovery and justification , and the traditional approach to induction has always assumed that formulation and justification of a theory can be helped by the gathering the relative evidence. Popper believes a scientific must be capable of conflicting itself with conceivable observations and experiments, thus become falsifiable and open to refutation. In contrast, Carnap paid a lot more attention to the odds of occurrence. The result of…

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    The Lakatosian perspective The article starts off by providing a fantastic definition of what Evolutionary Psychology is: “… the application of the principles and knowledge of evolutionary biology to psychological theory and research” and posits that the, “central assumption” of Evolutionary Psychology is that, “the human brain is comprised of a large number of specialized mechanisms that were shaped by natural selection over vast periods of time to solve the recurrent information-processing…

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