Karl Popper And Thomas Kuhn's View On Science

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Karl Popper and Thomas Kuhn’s View on Truth and Science
Science is the means of pursuing knowledge about the universe. It is collection of knowledge that is built on the testable predictions. Philosophy of science is a study concerned with fundamentals, techniques and consequences of science throughout time (The philosophy of science). There are several philosophers who tried to identify and differentiate between scientific and non-scientific theories throughout time using different philosophy. Karl Popper and Thomas Kuhn are two of the most influential philosophers of science of the 20th century. Popper and Kuhn’s ideas on the scientific theories and research methods have provided scientists with a strong foundation to construct their pursuit
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Popper’s book titled “Conjectures and Refutations” illustrated his ideas on demarcation of science from pseudo-science, criterion of a scientific theory and growth of scientific knowledge (Reimer, M., 2003). Popper’s interpretation of science included two essentials: criteria for demarcation between science and Pseudo-science and a portrayal of the nature of scientific methodology. Popper started by stating that, induction and empirical methods are the first step for identifying a scientific theory. Induction method involves generation of principles from particular facts whereas, empirical method involves generating idea based on experiments or an observation. Based on Popper’s beliefs, these two methods alone cannot differentiate between science and pseudo-science. So, Popper indicated that, the criteria for demarcation between science and Pseudo-science was an idea of falsifiability. Popper stated “One can sum up all this by saying that the criterion of the scientific status of a theory is its falsifiability, or refutability, or testability” (Popper, K. 1962). Popper’s view on scientific methods includes the proposal of theories or conjectures and attempting falsifications of these conjectures. Popper stated that scientists can formulate conjectures based on observations of the empirical data. Empirical data are obtained from experimental results. Those conjectures undergo investigations for refutation using experiments, and based on the data obtained, a conclusion is formulated. If the conjectures are supported by experimental evidence and other scientists are capable of duplicating the outcomes, then the conjectures are accepted as a scientific theory. Furthermore, a scientific theory should be sustainable to severe tests and experiments to maintain its authentication throughout time. To support his argument regarding falsification of a theory,

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