Causal theory of reference

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    Final Paper: David Lewis Prompt In his work, Mad Pain and Martian Pain, David Lewis argues that we can apprehend the concept of pain by applying an ambiguous, yet effective Materialist Mixed Theory of mind. The Mixed Theory of mind includes an Identity Theory and a Functionalist Theory—which Lewis must necessarily accept in order to have his theory of pain. Phenomenologists argue that Lewis fails to account for the experience of pain—the what it is like to be in pain and to feel pain. I will argue that David Lewis does not appropriately defend the Phenomenologist’s objections. The phenomenal experience of pain is not fully accounted for when we try to understand the concept of pain with physicalist and functionalist theories alone. 1: Key…

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    into the nature of reference. In his book, Naming and Necessity, Saul Kripke outlines his causal theory of reference for names. Gareth Evans, who, along with many others, was not satisfied with Kripke’s causal theory, wrote, The Causal Theory of Names, where he poses problems for Kripke’s view. The main attack was that the theory is not successfully in dealing with issues where the references of names change. Evans argument shows the most presence in his recognized Madagascar example. Though…

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    dominated by two types of naming theories: descriptivist and causal. Defenders of these two theories seem to discredit each other, thinking the world of semantics must choose one or the other. I, however, do not believe this has to be the case. In this essay I will argue that parts of descriptivist and causal theories of names can come together to create a better overall theory of names: a hybrid theory. I will do this by looking at the argument Gareth Evans makes in his article, “the Causal…

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    (Heide 02 Mar). He faces the challenge of explaining why why ideas and bodies appear to be so consistently coordinated, given that they are modes of the distinct attributes of thought and extension respectively. They have nothing in common and, therefore, have no causal interaction with one another (Pr.3,I). According to his parallelism, ideas and bodies are merely two different expressions of the same substance, God, each reflecting God 's nature through its proper attribute. The argument for…

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    1. Review the developmental theories described in the readings. Can you identify any of the theoretical underpinnings in clinical practice with adults or older adults? Investigate and describe the propositions of at least two theories or models in Alley et al. that you were not previously familiar with. For one of these theories, discuss the appropriateness and potential implications for their application in practice? Identify any potential unintended consequences for use of this theoretical…

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    1. Introduction Every human being tends to try connecting the events by causes and effects. We believe that everything that happens need to have a causal explanation. This is simply how the human mind works. On account of this, causal relationships can also be observed in every branch of science. For instance, medical specialists search causes of the diseases. Similarly, physicists observe causes of the effects on the nature. This is a reason why even the simplest laws of physics have causal…

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    People have different views about life. To some, life is something that happens because it is destined to happen. On the other hand, others believe that life is something that can be written through the way they react towards circumstances, and how they take necessary steps if they want to achieve something or prove something in their lifetime. Given the two views, this paper will discuss how individuals are responsible for their behaviors and life circumstances. Theory of Free Will and…

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    In the essay “Possible Worlds: Why do Children Pretend?” by Alison Gopnik she explains her theory of counterfactual thinking and the result of that being possible worlds. Gopnik suggests that counterfactuals are the possibilities of what could have occurred in life. These counterfactuals are the cause, and the effect is the creation of possible worlds. Gopnik defines possible worlds as “the productions of hope and imagination” (163). Possible worlds are seen as the result of a counterfactual;…

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    scientific, philosophic, and aesthetic thoughts of the Enlightenment. Bristow’s article consists of detailed explanations on the philosophes and the findings that emerged during the age of reason. Specifically, it includes a description of Locke’s theories on liberty and Rousseau's Social Contract theory. The paper suggests the connection between enlightened ideas, such as the support of social change and skepticism towards authority, to the French Revolution.…

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    Critical Review Essay

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    Original Article: “In Defense of Parenthood” Anecdotally, parenting is often associated with stress, sacrifice, and even misery. These qualities are pervasive among portrayals of parenthood in popular media, and have been the subject of some scholarly works. Nelson, Kushlev, English, Dunn, and Lyubomirsky (2012) set out to investigate these conceptions experimentally. The motivation for this research was partially rooted in a lack of conclusive evidence for, and even conflicting findings,…

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