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24 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Axial Skeleton
Forms the longitudinal axis of the body
Has about 80 bones
Skull - 8 cranial and 14 facial
Vertebral column - 24 veertebrae, sacrum, cocycx
Thoracic cage - sternum, 24 ribs
Axial Skeleton

Supports and protects the brain, spinal cord, and organs in the ventral cavity
Provides surface for attachment of muscles
Cranial Bones
8 bones
Occipital bone - 1
Frontal bone - 1
Sphenoid bone - 1
Ethmoid bone - 1
Parietal bones - 2
Temporal bones - 2
Cranial Bones

Occipital Bone
One bone
Posterior and inferior surface of the cranium
External occipital protuberance - small bump at midline on inferior surface
Nuchal lines - ridges in back by neck; intersect the occipital crest
Occipital condyles - site of articulation between skull and 1st vertebrae
Foramen magnum - connects the cranial cavity and spinal cavity
Foramen - Hole
Sinuses - air spaces
Fossa - depression in bone
Cranial Bones

Parietal Bones
2 bones

Form part of the superior and lateral surfaces of the cranium
Cranial Bones

Frontal Bone
1 bone
Forma nterior portion of the cranium and roof of the orbits (eye sockets)
Supra-orbital margin - thickening of the frontal bone that helps protect the eye
Supra-orbital foramen - provides passage for blood vessels for the eyelids, eyebrows, and frontal sinuses
Frontal sinuses - vary in size
Cranial Bones

Temporal Bones
2 bones
Form part of the lateral walls of the cranium and zygomatic arches
Zygomatic process -inferior to squamous portion
Zygomatic arch -cheekbone
Carotid foramen -hole for passage of the internal carotid artery
Jugular foramen - hole for passage of the jugular vein
Mandibular fossa - on inferior surface; site of articulation with the mandible
Mastoid process - site for attachment of muscles that rotate the head
External auditory meatus - on lateral surface; ends at the tympanic membrane
Internal auditory meatus -on medial surface ; carries blood vessels and nerves to the inner ear
Styloid process -near the base of the mastoid process; attached to ligaments that support the hyoid bone
Foramen lacerum - jagged slit near the sphenoid; contains small arteries that supply the inner surface of the cranium
Cranial Bones

1 bone
Forms part of the floor of the cranium
Sphenoidal sinuses -on either side; inferior to the sella turcica
Greater and lesser wings - greater extend laterally; lesser extend horizontally anterior
Sella turcica - saddle-shaped enclosure on the superior surface
Optic foramen -permit passagee of optic nerves
Superior orbital fissure -pn greater wing; carry blood vessels and nerves to the orbit
Pterygoid processes -vertical projections
Foramen spinosum -carry blood vessels and nerves to the membranes of the cranal cavity
Foramen rotundum -carry blood vessels and nerves to the face
Foramen ovale -carry blood vessels and nerves to the jaws
Cranial Bones

Ethmoid Bone
1 bone
Forms the anteromedial floor of the cranium, and part of the nasal cavity and septum, and medial orbitsl wall
Ethmoidal sinuses -air spaces tha topen into the nasal cavity on each side
Perpendicular plate -forms part of the nasal septum
Cribriform plate -forms the anteromedial floor of the cranium and roof of the nasal cavity
Olfactory foramina -in the cribriform plate; permits passage of olfactory nerves which provide sense of smell
Crista galli -bony ridge that projects superior to the cribriform plate
Superior nasal concha -delicate projections on side of nose
Middle nasal concha -delicate projections on side of nose
Facial Bones
Nasal bones - 2
Maxilla - 2
Zygomatic bones - 2
Mandible - 1
Lacrimal bone - 2
Palatine bone - 2
Inferior nasal conchae - 2
Vomer - 1
Nasal Bones
2 bones
Support the superior portion of the bridge of the nose
2 bones
Support the upper teeth, and form the inferior orbital rim, the lateral margins of the nose, the upper jaw, and most of the hard palate
Maxillary sinuses - air spaces; lighten the portion of the maxilla superior to the teeth
Alveolar process -supports the upper teeth
Palatine process - forms most of the hard palate (roof of the mouth)
Zygomatic bones
2 bones
Part of the rim and lateral wall of the orbit, and zygomatic arch
Temporal process - curves posteriorly to meet the zygomatic process of the temporal bone
Zygomatic arch - the part with the temporal bone
1 bone
Forms the lower jaw
Body - horizontal portion of the bone
Ramus - the ascending portion of the mandible
Angle -the curve where the horizontal part starts to go up into the ramus
Condylar process -articulates with the temporal bone at the temperomandibulat joint
Coronoid process -insertion point for the temporalis muscle
Mandibular notch -depression that separates the coronoid and condylar processes
Alveolar process -supports the lower teeth
Mental foramen -opening for nerves to the lips and chin
Mandibular foramen - entrance for blood vessels and nerves to the teeth
Lacrimal Bone
2 bones
Form part of the medial wall of the orbit
Lacrimal foramen -location of the lacrimal sac
Palatine Bone
2 bones
form the posterior portion of the hard palate
Horizontal plates - forms the posterior of the hard palate
Inferior Nasal Conchae
2 bones
increase surface area in the nose to promote warming and humidification of inhaled air
1 bone
Forms the inferior portion of the nasal seotum
Nasal Septum
Formed by 7 bones
Frontal bone - roof
Maxilla - orbital floor
Lacrimal bone
Ethmoid bone
Palatine bone
Zygomatic bone
Cranial fossae
Paranasal Sinuses
Air-filled cavities connected to the nasal cavities
Frontal sinuses, sphenoidal sinuses, ethmoid sinuses, and maxillary sinuses
In the sphenoid, ethmoid, frontal, palatine, and maxilla
Occipital bone