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56 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back

Structure, Composition, and Function
Structure, Composition, and Function

Integral Proteins
Peripheral Proteins
Structure, Composition, and Function

Integral Proteins
Span the entrie width of the membrane
Provid structural support
Also called transmembrane proteins
Ex: glycophorins, A, B, C, Anionic, Exchange Channel (Band 3)
Channel proteins - permit movement of water, ions and other small water soluble solutes; 3 anionic exchange channel proteins permit Cl- and HCO3- ions to pass and resist the movement of cations
Structure, Composition, and Function

Peripheral Proteins
Bound to the inner surface of the membrane and can be separated from it
Provide support and shape to the cell
Connect with integral proteins, uniting the protein/phospholipid moiety
Ex: spectrin, ankyrin, actin
Structure, Composition, and Function

Choline phospholipids - lecithin
Aminophospholipids - cephalins
Structure, Composition, and Function

Choline Phospholipids
Predominate on outer surface
Associated with regulating lipid exchange across membrane and metabolism by the cell
Structure, Composition, and Function

Amino phospholipids
Serine, ethanolamine, and inositol
Predominate on the inner bilayer
Structure, Composition, and Function

Variety of choline phospholipid
Sphingosine alcohol replaces glycerol
Occupies the outer layer
Structure, Composition, and Function

Lipids - Cholesterol
Occupies the area between the phospholipid bilayer
In a 1:1 ratio with other phospholipids
Disrupting this ratio can cause cell death
Structure, Composition, and Function
Act as an antigen on the cell surface
Extend beyond inner and outer surface to form the glycocalyx
Glycocalyx protects membrane, aids in recognition of cell as normal or abnormal, anchors cell in place, act as receptors
Cell Cycle

Replication occurs during the S phase
Replication - making of DNA
DNA - genetic information of the cell; double strand
Nucleotide - Building blocks of nucleic acids (RNA and DNA) - made up of nitrogenous base, a 5 carbon sugar, and a phosphate group
Leading Strand
That strand of DNA manufactured by continuous synthesis
Lagging Strand
That strand of DNA manufactured by discontinuous synthesis
Continuous Synthesis of DNA
Occurs in a C5' c3' direction
DNA polymerase works towards the unzipping
Discontinuous Synthesis
Occurs with lagging strand of DNA replication
Makes fragments of DNA that get bound together
DNA polymerase works away from the unzipping
Okazaki f\Fragments
Fragments from the discontinuous strand
Get bound together by ligase
Unzips the DNA double strand for replication
DNA Polymerase
Synthesizes DNA in a C5 C3 direction
RNA Polymerase
Synthesizes mRNA
DNA Ligase
Ties the Okazaki fragments together
RNA Primer
Short strand of RNA so DNA synthesis can start
On lagging strand
RNA Primase
Produces the RNA primer
Antisense Strand
The strand of DNA from which mRNA is manufactures
Mitosis vs. Meiosis
Mitosis occurs in somatic cells and each new cell has 2n number of chromosomes
Meiosis occurs in sex cells and each new cell has 1n number of chromosomes
Spindle fibers appear
Paired chromosomes can be seen
Nucleoli disappear
Chromatids line up
Chromatids start to separate
Daughter chromosomes are pulled to opposite ends of cell
Nuclear membrane reforms
Cell prepares to return to Interphase
Homologous Pairing
The two members of each pair of chromosomes are known as homologous chromosomes
Crossing Over
If adjacent chromatids overlap and switch sections
The central region where 2 chromatids remain connected after the chromosome replicated
One complete copy of DNA
Associated with DNA
DNA strands are waound around them
Messenger RNA
Uracil replaces thymine
Made from one strand of DNA
Can leave nucleus to help synthesize proteins
Made from the antisense strand of DNA
The manufacturing of mRNA
The encoding of genetic instructions on a strand of mRNA
Protein synthesis
The process of peptide formation from instructions carried by an mRNA strand
Ribosome structure
25 nm in diameter
60% RNA and 40% protein
Made up of 2 subunits
Small subunit - 30-40 nm in diameter
Large subunit 50-60 nm in diameter
Subunits are distinct in the non-activated ribosome
Initiation Factor
In translation
Factors that are required to begin the process of protein synthesis
Transfer RNA
Brings the amino acids to the mRNA for protein synthesis
mRNA Starter Codon
Attaches to the small subunit on the ribosome
tRNA Anticodon
Carries amino acid methionine
Which RNA attaches first to ribosome to initiate protein synthesis?
Which ribosomal subunit deos mRNA attach to?
Small subunit
Which ribosomal subunit does tRNA associate with?
First the small subunit
After activation when tRNA binding occurs, the large subunit joins the sall subunit to form a complete ribosome
What is the function of tRNA
To bring amino acids
Where on the ribosome are amino acids synthesized into a polypeptide or protein?
Enzymes of the large subunit attach amino acids together
Elongation Factor
Termination/Releasing Factor
Cytoplasmic activity
Yields 2 ATPs by direct substrate phosphorylation and 2 hydrogen pairs which are shuttled to the mitochondria for a yield of either 4 or 6 ATPs; making a total of 6 or 8 ATPs depending on the tissue's shuttle system
This is Anaerobic - it occurs in the absence of oxygen
Results in the development of lactic acid
This anaerobic pathway is called the Embden-Meyerhof Pathway
Citric Acid Cycle
Mitochondrial activity
Yield for 2 pyruvate molecules is 10 hydrogen pairs which yield 28 ATPs after going through the Hydrogen Transport system
Citric Acid Cycle
8 of the hydrogen pairs enter the hydrogen transport system at NAD and yield 24 ATPs
2 of the hydrogen pairs enter the system at FAD and yield 4 ATPs
Total yield for citric acid cycle is 28 ATPs
Hydrogen Transport System
NAD - Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide
FAD - Flavo adenine dinucleotide
Cytochromes -Iron (Fe++) bound hydrogen acceptor compounds
Hydrogen Transport System
NAD, FAD, and cytpchromes are mitochondrial compounds
They all participate in oxidation and reduction activities with hydrogen that result in energy that is harnessed (saved) by the cell in the form of ATP
Other forms of energy include ADP and GTP GTP is the main source of energy used during repilcation, transcripton, and translation
know general functions
Polarized Membrane
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