• Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off

Card Range To Study



Play button


Play button




Click to flip

Use LEFT and RIGHT arrow keys to navigate between flashcards;

Use UP and DOWN arrow keys to flip the card;

H to show hint;

A reads text to speech;

28 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Dalton's Theory
Matter is composed of atoms
Made up of subatomic particles
Dalton's Theory
John Dalton
Proposed that matter is composed of atoms
Dalton thought atoms were solid indivisible particles
We know now atoms are divisible into subatomic particles
Subatomic particles
Protons and Neutrons
Located in the nucleus(core)
Mass of 1 atomic unit
Positive charge
Atomic number of an element
Located in the nucleus(core)
Mass of 1 atomic unit
No charge (neutral)
Atomic Mass Weight
Number of protons and neutrons
Different number of neutrons, so different atomic mass weight
Number of protons is always the same for an element
Subtract an atom's atomic number from its mass to get the number of neutrons
Negative charge
1/1836th the mass of a proton - almost no mass
Occupy the region outside the nucleus - called the electron cloud
Electron Cloud
Size of the electron cloud determines the size of the atom
Atomic measurements are in nanometers
Electron Cloud

Energy Levels (Shells)
Identified by numbers 1,2,3,4, etc or by letters K,L,M,N
The number of electrons in each shell is 2N squared
First shell 2(1) =2
Second shell 2(2.2) = 8
Electron Shells
Divided into subshells s, p, d, f by line spectra characteristics
s Subshell ("Sharp series)
Holds 2 electrons in an atomic orbital
Orbitals can hold a maximum of 2 electrons
p Subshell ("principle series)
Holds 6 electrons
3 orbitals
d Subshell (diffuse series)
Holds 10 electrons
5 orbitals
f Subshell (fundamental series)
Holds 14 electrons
7 orbitals
Electron Shells
The number of subshells in a shell is equal to the number of the shell
Shell 1 has 1 subshell (s)
Shell 2 has 2 subshells (s, p)
Shells 3 has 3 subshells (s,p,d)
Electrons in each shell
1 has maximum of 2 electrons
2 has maximum of 8 electrons
3 has maximum of 18 electrons
4 has maximum of 32 electrons
5 has maximum of 50 electrons
Filling of subshells
After subshell 3, overlaps occur, so 4s fills before 3d; also 5s fills before 4d and 4f
Electron Shells
Atom is more stable if the outer electron shell is completely filled -
see pic on pg. 7 of handout
Positive proton in the nucleus attracts the negatively charged electrons
Electronegativity is the force between an atom's nucleus and electrons
An atom's electrons stay with the atom unless a stronger force pulls them away
If you lose an electron, the atom becomes a positive ion
Lose electrons
Are electron donors
Become positive ions
Left of periodic table
Gain electrons
Electron acceptors
Become negative ions
Polyatomic ion
Multiple atoms that work together as a single atom and exhibit a charge
Ex: HCO (bicarbonate)
Polyatomic Molecules
Have both negative and positive charges
Called Zwitterions
Amino acids
Take or give off a H or depending on the pH
Acts as a buffer