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39 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Where are protons found?
Where are neutrons found?
Where are electrons found?
Outside the nucleus in shells that make up the elctron cloud
What does the atomic number represent?
The number of protons
What does the atomic mass represent?
The total number of protons andneutrons in the nucleus
Electrons are found occupying what regions of the atom?
Electrons occupy the outside of the atom called an electron cloud and are divided into shells
Electron Shells
Electron shells are subdivided into subshells
Subshells are sm p, d, f
Covalent Bonding

Sharing of electrons between atoms
Atoms that bond covalently have a difference in electronegativity less than 1.7
Ionic Bonding

Also called electrovalent or noncovalent bonding
Characterized as a charge-charge interaction
Defined as a transfer of electrons
Occurs when electronegativity difference is 1.7 or greater
Hydrogen Bonding

A type of non-covalent bond

Bonding occurs between a positive H from one molecule and a negatively charged oxygen or nitrogen from another molecule

The attractive force between an atom's positively charged protons and its negatively charged electrons
The force of attraction an atom exhibits for its electrons

How does it influence bonding?
When the electronegativity difference is:
0.0 - 1.6 bond is covalent
0.0 - 0.4 electrons are shared equally - non-polar
0.5 - 0.9 electrons are shared unequally - non-polar if molecule is symmetrical
1.0 -1.6 electrons are shared unequally - polar if moleucle is asymmetrical
1.7 and greater bond is ionic and electrons are transferred
Exchange reaction
Reversible reaction
Synthesis reaction
Decomposition reaction
Exchange Reaction

HCl + NaOH NaCl (salt) + H2O (water)
Reversible Reaction

H2O + CO2 H2CO3 (carbonic acid)
Synthesis Reaction

N + 3H NH3 (ammonia)
Decomposition Reaction

CH4 (methane) C (carbon) + 4H (hydrogen)
Define pH
pH represents the amount of free H+ ions present in solution
the lower case "p" in mathematics represents the negative logarithm (-log), which is based on 10 to a negative power or exponent
Ex: 10-3 equals .001, or one-thousandth of one, the one representing 1 mole
Tghe lower the pH the higher the concentration of free hydrogen ions H+ and the more acidic
Represents the amount of ionization product at equilibrium
Why is water an excellent solvent?
Water is an excellent solvent because of its tendency to form H bonds, and its dipolar character.
Water as a solvent
H Bonds - Water can form hydrogen bonds, and therefore readily dissolve hydroxyl compounds, amines, sulfhydryl compounds, esters, ketones, and a wide variety of other organic compounds
Water as a solvent
Dipolar character allows it to dissolve ionic compounds
The interaction of dipoles with cations and anions causes the ions to become hydrated - that it, surrounded by the polar water molecules(called hydration shells)
The high dielectric constant helps dissolve ionic compounds
Dipolar nature of water also helps to dissolnonionic, but polar organic molecules such as amides
Dielectric Constant
get definition
water has a high dielectric constant

High dielectric constant results from dipole character of the water molecule
High dielectric constant reduces electrostatic forces between other charged particles, so the molecules drift fruther apart and can dissolve in water
Important characteristics of water
Molecular weight is 18 gram/mol
Boiling point is 100 C
Freezing Point is 0 C
High viscosity
High surface tension
High dielectric constant
Why does water freeze from the top down?
liquid water is denser than solid ice
Liquid water is denser than ice because when the ice lattice breaks down, the molecules can move closer together
How does the lattice of ice differ from the lattice of liquid water
Ice has a tetrahedral lattice - each water molecule is hydrogen bonded to 4 other water molecules - this creates rigid OH vectors
Ice has a closed lattice (clathrate)
Water - The lattice is partially broken down in water - bonds form and break, so you have an open lattice as ice melts
see pic pg. 6
Why does ice expand?
the secret lies in the rigid OH vectors create when a water molecule interacts with 4 other water molecules
Ice expands because the molecules can move further apart (same reason it is less dense than liquid water)
Molecular formula of monosaccharides
Isomers of one another
Same molecular formula
Glucose + Glucose
Glucose + Galactose
Glucose + Fructose
5 carbon sugars
Ribose vs Deoxyribose
find molecular differences
Which nucleic acids contain ribose and deoxyribose?
Deoxyribose is is DNA
Ribose is in RNA
What is the composition of simple lipids?
fatty acid + glycerol
Fatty Acids
Fatty acids are organic because they contain a carboxyl group (COOH)
Compound Lipids
(Compound Phospholipids)
Choline Phospholipids
Sphingophospholipids (sphingolipids)
Compound Lipids
Compound lipids are acyl glycerol that have in addition to fatty acids, other molecules attached to themselves