Chi Square Test Lab Report

Sickle cell disease is an inherited disorder that is caused by a mutation in the DNA sequences that codes for the beta chain of the hemoglobin protein. Red blood cells are, normally, flexible and round, but with the sickle cell anemia the red blood cells become sticky, rigid, and crescent shaped. The Hemoglobin protein carries oxygen in the red blood cells throughout the body. With the disease, the blood cell’s shape can cause them to get lodged in the blood vessels resulting in the obstruction of blood flow, especially in the smaller arterial vessels in the body This occurrence not only reduces oxygen content to the area of concern, but can be a very painful experience for the victim. People who inherit this disease have two abnormal hemoglobin …show more content…
It is the sum of the difference between observed and expected data squared, then it is divided by the expected data in the possible categories. It required that numerical values are used and not percentages nor ratios. Also, it should not be calculated if the expected value in the categories are less than five. The observed values are the values we gather ourselves from the given information. The expected value is what it should be in order for us to accept our hypothesis. The p-value in a Chi Square test tells you the likely hood of your hypothesis being within a 95% confidence interval. If the p-value is smaller or equal to the variable, then reject your null hypothesis in favor of your alternative hypothesis. If the p-value is greater than the variable, then don’t reject null hypothesis. A chi square (X2) value is a tool to help determine whether distributions of categorical variables differ from each other. The categorical variable yield data in the categorical form. The numerical variables yield data in numerical form. Lastly, the degrees of freedom are referred to as the number of observations in a sample that is subtracted from estimated population parameters in a …show more content…
Theses certain cells are called our sex cells or gametes which are sperm cells in men and eggs in females. This is how sickle cell is passed on to each generation. If one parent maintains the allele that codes for sickle cell, then there is a possibility their offspring will as well. Meiosis happens in two stages called Meiosis I and meiosis II. Within Meiosis I, there are four phases that occur called prophase I, metaphase I, anaphase I, and telophase I/ cytokinesis. Prophase I takes place when the homologous pairs are connected and cross over which leads to diversity of characteristics in a phenotype. Crossing over occurs between homologous chromatids and sister chromatids. Metaphase I is when the chromosomes line up side by side. The chromosomes can line up differently which is also known as independent assortment. Anaphase I is when the separation of homologous pairs occurs. Telophase/cytokinesis occurs when there is no longer a mother/father pair together, After the completion of meiosis I, the cells are no longer diploid cells, but rather haploid cells. Meiosis II also has four phases including prophase II, metaphase II, anaphase II, and telophase II/ cytokinesis. Prophase II occurs when spindle fibers reform and attach to the centromeres. Metaphase II consist of the chromosomes lining up to prepare for the division of centromeres in the next phase.

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