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48 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Personality is best defined as an individual's
characteristic pattern of thinking, feeling, and acting.
Mark typically responds to stress in a calm and thoughtful manner. Chandler usually becomes agitated. The reactions of
Mark and Chandler indicate that each has a distinctive
Which of the following techniques was Freud most likely to use in an attempt to discover the hidden conflicts
underlying his patients' symptoms?
free association
Free association is a method designed to
explore the unconscious.
. Freud emphasized that effective treatment of psychological disorders involves the
exploration of repressed memories
According to Freud, thoughts that are too unsettling for people to acknowledge are
Julie reported that she had a dream in which she was chased by a large dog. According to Freud, Julie's account
represents the ________ content of her dream.
According to Freud's theory, the behavior of a newborn is controlled by
the id
The superego is the part of personality that
operates on the reality principle
While attending college, Saeb impulsively and carelessly spends all his time and money on “wine, women, and song.”
Freud would have suggested that Saeb shows signs of a(n)
weak superego
1. Freud suggested that pleasure-seeking energies focus on distinct erogenous zones as we progress through various
psychosexual stages
According to Freud, the most important erogenous zone during earliest infancy consists of the
Boris does not like chemistry, but he has chosen it as his college major simply to prove that he is just as smart as his
father, who is an outstanding chemist. A psychoanalyst would be most likely to suggest that Boris suffers from an
oedipus complex
Psychoanalytic theory suggests that the ego disguises threatening impulses and reduces anxiety by means of
defense mechanism
Coping with anxiety by retreating to behavior patterns characteristic of an earlier, more infantile stage of development is
Although Eduardo has repressed his own homosexual desires, he is distressed by a false suspicion that many men
frequently stare lustfully at his body. According to psychoanalytic theory, Eduardo's thinking best illustrates
Unconsciously motivated by miserliness, Mr. Rioja refused his son's request for money to buy the books he needs for
school. In defending his actions, Mr. Rioja explained that “parental financial aid prevents teenagers from developing
into mature, independent adults.” Mr. Rioja's explanation is an example of
Shortly after receiving a traffic ticket for speeding, Fred made numerous hostile comments to his wife about the
incompetence of women drivers. Fred's comments illustrate most clearly the defense mechanism of
Frank refuses to believe that he is addicted to drugs despite overwhelming evidence to the contrary. He is most clearly
demonstrating the defense mechanism of
According to Carl Jung, the collective unconscious
contains images derived from our species' universal experiences.
Mr. Dutoit was asked by his psychotherapist to look at some ambiguous pictures and make up a story about each. Mr.
Dutoit was most likely taking the
Survivors of traumatic events, such as rape or torture, are often haunted by persistent and vivid memories of this
experience. This most clearly serves to challenge Freud's concept of
Which theory has been most severely criticized for offering after-the-fact explanations without advancing testable
psychoanalytic theory
According to Maslow, the top-level needs that arise after all other needs have been met include the needs for
self-actualization and
According to Carl Rogers, people nurture our growth by being genuine, accepting, and
Carl Rogers emphasized that a positive self-concept is promoted by
unconditional positive regard
In assessing a client's personal growth, Carl Rogers measured the correspondence between
ideal self and actual self
An interest in describing and classifying the many ways in which individuals may differ from one another is most
characteristic of the ________ perspective.
To identify a relatively small number of the most basic personality traits, trait theorists have used
factor analysis
The Big Five is the term currently used to refer to basic
trait dimensions
Which of the following Big Five trait dimensions is most descriptive of an individual who is organized and disciplined
in managing his or her work?
Trait theorists have been criticized for
overestimating the consistency of behavior from one situation to another
Analena's refusal to purchase fattening snacks at the grocery store is both a cause and a consequence of her superior
dietary self-control. This best illustrates the importance of
reciprocal determinism
Julio believes that no matter how hard he works, the “system” is so biased against his ethnic group that he will be unable
to achieve economic success. Julio's thinking most clearly demonstrates
an external locus of control
Paula expects that diligent study will enable her to earn good grades on her tests. Paula's belief best illustrates
an internal locus of control
Compared with those who perceive an internal locus of control, individuals with an external locus of control are
less likely to feel depressed and less likely to feel gratification
Researchers have observed that the experience of repeated uncontrollable traumatic events contributes to
learned helplessness
After picking one of 28 flavors of ice cream, people may regret bypassing some of the remaining flavors. Their regret
best illustrates a consequence of
the tyranny of choice
The trait of optimism is most closely related to a strong sense of
personal control
Martin Seligman advocates a positive psychology, which focuses on topics such as
Which of the following is said to function as an organizer of our thoughts, feelings, and behaviors?
the sefl
Medical students earn higher grades if they have a clear vision of themselves as successful doctors. This best illustrates
the motivational significance of
positive selves
When Professor McKay nervously began teaching a university class for the first time, he overestimated the extent to
which his students would notice that he was anxious. His reaction best illustrates
the spotlight effect
Self-esteem refers to
all of these characteristics
People with high self-esteem are less likely than those with low self-esteem to
succumb to conformity pressures
The tendency to accept more personal responsibility for one's successes than for one's failures best illustrates
self-serving bias
Research participants were most likely to react aggressively to criticism of their written essays if they experienced
________ self-esteem
unrealistically high
Exaggerated feelings of self-importance are most closely linked with