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53 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Memory is best defined as
the persistence of learning through the storage and retrieval of information.
The process of getting information into memory is called
The process of retrieval refers to
getting information out of memory storage
After looking up his friend's phone number, Alex was able to remember it only long enough to dial it correctly. In this
case, the telephone number was clearly stored in his ________ memory.
Encoding that occurs with no effort or a minimal level of conscious attention is known as
automatic processing
While reading a novel at a rate of nearly 500 words per minute, Megan effortlessly understands almost every word. This
ability highlights the importance of
automatic processing
Encoding and storing a friend's new cellphone number typically involves
effortful processing
Which pioneering researcher made extensive use of nonsense syllables in the study of human memory?
Students often remember more information from a one-semester course than from an intensive three-week course. This
best illustrates the importance of
the spacing effect
On the telephone, Dominic rattles off a list of 10 grocery items for Kyoko to bring home from the store. Immediately
after hearing the list, Kyoko attempts to write down the items. She is most likely to forget the items
in the middle of the list
The process by which information is encoded by its meaning is called
semantic encoding
Wei Dong was asked to memorize a long list of words that included “ship, effort, professor, and inquire.” He later
recalled these words as “boat, work, teacher, and question.” This suggests that the four original words had been encoded
The acoustic encoding of words refers to the processing of
One reason adults typically recall little of their first three years of life is that during infancy they were unable to verbally
label their experiences. This best illustrates that the formation of long-term memories often requires
semantic encoding
. Which of the following questions about the word pen would best prepare you to correctly remember tomorrow that you
had seen that word in today's test?
Does the word rhyme with den?
To remember a list of the school supplies she needs, Marcy mentally visualizes each item at a certain location in her
house. Marcy's tactic best illustrates use of
iconic memory
The organization of information into meaningful units is called
Tim, a third-grader, learns the sentence “George Eats Old Gray Rats And Paints Houses Yellow” to help him remember
the spelling of “geography.” Tim is using
a mnemonic device
By presenting research participants with three rows of three letters each for only a fraction of a second, Sperling
demonstrated that people have ________ memory.
Iconic memory refers to
photographic, or picture-image, memory that lasts for only a few tenths of a second
Peterson and Peterson asked people to count aloud backward after they were presented with three consonants. This
study finds that ________ memories will quickly disappear without active processing and rehearsal.
The human capacity for storing long-term memories is
essentially unlimited
The increase in synaptic firing potential that contributes to memory formation is known as
long-term potentiation
Exceptionally clear memories of emotionally significant events are called
flashbulb memories
Most Americans still have accurate flashbulb memories of the 9/11 terrorist attacks in 2001. This best illustrates that
memory formation is facilitated by
the body's release of stress
Unlike implicit memories, explicit memories are processed by the
Damage to the hippocampus would most likely interfere with a person's ability to learn
the names of the 50 states in the United States.
An eyewitness to a grocery store robbery is asked to identify the suspects in a police lineup. Which test of memory is
being utilized?
The smell of freshly baked bread awakened in Mr. Hutz vivid memories of his early childhood. The aroma apparently
acted as a powerful
retrieval cue
The discovery that words heard underwater are later better recalled underwater than on land best illustrates the value of
retreival cues
. The eerie sense of having previously experienced a situation is known as
deja vu
Lars was feeling depressed at the time he read a chapter of his history textbook. Lars is likely to recall best the contents
of that chapter when he is
An inability to recall the location of the number 0 on your calculator is most likely due to
encoding failure
Using nonsense syllables to study memory, Ebbinghaus found that
the most rapid memory loss for new information occurs shortly after it is learned
Although Yusef was having difficulty recalling the capital of the Netherlands, he quickly and correctly identified it after
being given a list of cities in the Netherlands. Yusef's initial inability to recall the answer was due to a failure in
The disruptive effect of prior learning on the recall of new information is called
proactive interference.
Professor Maslova has so many memories of former students that she has difficulty remembering the names of new
students. The professor's difficulty best illustrates
retroactive interference
After studying biology all afternoon, Alonzo is having difficulty remembering details of the organic chemistry material
he memorized that morning. Alonzo's difficulty best illustrates
retroactive interference
Two people learned nonsense syllables and then tried to recall them after up to eight hours had elapsed. Jenkins and
Dallenbach observed that forgetting occurred least rapidly when the individuals spent their time
Repression most clearly involves a failure in
Philippe has just completed medical school. In reflecting on his years of formal education, he is able to recall the names
of all his instructors except the fifthgrade teacher who flunked him. According to Freud, his forgetting illustrates
As we retrieve memories from our memory bank, we often alter them based on past experiences and our current
expectations. This best illustrates
memory construction
When Loftus and Palmer asked observers of a filmed car accident how fast the vehicles were going when they
“smashed” into each other, the observers developed memories of the accident that
portrayed the event as more serious than it had actually been
Researchers asked university students to imagine certain childhood events, including a false event such as breaking a
window with their hand. They discovered that
it is surprisingly easy to lead people to construct false memories.
After hearing stories of things they both had and had not actually experienced with “Mr. Science,” preschool children
spontaneously recalled him doing things that were only mentioned in the stories. This best illustrates
source amnesia
Donald Thompson, an Australian psychologist, was an initial suspect in a rape case. The rape victim confused her
memories of Thompson and the actual rapist because she had seen Thompson's image on TV shortly before she was
attacked. The victim's false recollection best illustrates
source amnesia
In one study, children were periodically asked whether they remembered going to the hospital with a mousetrap on their
finger. This experiment best illustrated the dynamics of
memory construction
Adults who have trouble remembering incidences of childhood sexual abuse have often been led by therapists to believe
that their memory difficulties are due to
Memory experts who express skepticism regarding reports of repressed and recovered memories emphasize that
most extremely traumatic life experiences are never encoded into long-term memory
Mrs. Ramos claims to remember being sexually abused by her father when she was less than a year old. Memory experts
are most likely to doubt the reliability of her memory due to their awareness of
infantile amnesia
Repeating someone's name several times shortly after being introduced to that person is an effective strategy for
Mentally re-creating the mood that accompanied your original learning of course material is an effective way to activate
retrieval cues
Answering practice test questions about text material you have studied is a useful strategy for
becoming aware of what you do not yet know