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Personal trainer

Any certified person who works with clients in a one-on-one or group setting where the goal is to improve the client's level of fitness or health

Benefits of being a PT

- Provides the opportunity to help people reach their goals and do things they didn't think they could do

- You can set your own hours and decide how much you want to work

- Once you have a clientele built up, your business will grow our sustain itself almost exclusively from referrals

- An unlimited amount of educational material and support allows you to expand your knowledge base whenever you want

- Has high income potential

- Has low startup costs compared with many other careers and businesses


Physical Fitness

An improved physiological state that leads to improved health and longevity

4 PRIMARY components of fitness

Cardiorespiratory capacity

Muscular capacity


Body composition


Cardiorespiratory capacity

The ability of the body to take in oxygen (respiration), deliver it to the cells (circulation), and use it at the cellular level to create energy (bioenergetics) for physical work (activity).

Muscular capacity

Refers to the spectrum of muscular capability. This includes muscular endurance (ability to apply force over a long period of time or repeated contractions), muscular strength (ability to generate force per 1 contraction) and muscular power (ability to generate strength in an explosive way)


Range of movement or amount of motion that a joint is capable of performing

Is a measure of the ROM around a joint

Tends to decrease as people mature into adulthood

Is limited by the joint's physical structure, including bone, connective tissue, and muscle

Is needed by all people

Decreases chance of injury during workouts

Body composition

The proportion of fat-free mass (muscle, bone, blood, organs, and fluids) to fat mass (adipose tissue deposited under the skin and around the organs)

7 SECONDARY components of fitness




Reaction time



Mental capacity



Ability to maintain a specific body position in either a stationary or dynamic situation


Ability to use all body parts together to produce smooth and fluid motion


Ability to change direction quickly

Reaction time

Time required time respond to a specific stimulus


Ability to move rapidly.

Aka velocity


Product of strength and speed

Mental capability

Ability to concentrate during exercise to improve training effects as well as the ability to relax and enjoy the psychological benefits of activity (endorphins)

4 non-physical components of health

Social health

Mental health

Emotional health

Spiritual health


Social health

Ability to interact well with people and the environment and to have satisfying personal relationships

Mental health

Ability to learn and grow intellectually. Life experiences as well as more formal structures, like school, enhance mental health

Emotional health

Ability to control emotions so that you feel comfortable expressing them and can express them appropriately

Spiritual health

A belief in some unifying force. Varies from person to person but has the concept of faith at its core


The search for enhanced quality of life, personal growth, and potential through positive lifestyle behaviors and attitudes

Factors that influence wellness


Physical activity

Stress-coping methods

Good relationships

Career success


Canada's PA ENDURANCE guidelines

Endurance - on 4 to 7 days a week, perform continuous activity for your heart, lungs, and circulatory system.

Time required for improvements depends on effort (30-60 min; moderately)

Canada's PA FLEXIBILITY guidelines

Flexibility - on 4 to 7 days a week, perform gentle reaching, bending and stretching to keep muscles relaxed and joints mobile

Canada's PA STRENGTH guidelines

Strength - on 2 to 4 days a week, perform resistance exercise to strengthen muscles and bones and improve posture

ACSM PA guidelines

Perform 30 minutes or more of moderate-intensity PA on most days of the week for cardiovascular health. The 30 min need not be continuous

Performing 1 set of 8 to 12 reps of resistance training for the entire body is necessary to maintain and develop muscular strength and endurance

Flexibility training should be performed daily, including stretches for all major muscle groups, in order to maintain mobility

9 training principles




Progressive overload


Structural tolerance

All-around development





This principle suggests that when designing a PT program, the frequency, intensity, time and type of exercise must be considered.

Frequency - how often the client should be performing a component of their program

Intensity - the difficulty level of the component of their program

Time - how long each component should last and how much rest the clients should have

Type - the choice of exercise used for a given component of their program


This principle suggests that programs and mods to programs must be made to accommodate every person's individual needs

Ex. Two people with the same goal may require very different programs to achieve this goal


This principle suggests that if clients want to improve an aspect of their performance, they have to train that aspect.

Ex. If a client wants to be a better runner, strength training will probably deliver measurable improvements, but the client will still have to continue to run to optimize their results

Progressive overload

This principle suggests that to improve, clients must continually challenge their fitness.

Ex. if the client's fitness is not progressively challenged, the client will plateau, or cease to make improvements


This principle becomes increasingly important as the clients' workouts become more successful. Recovery should not be seen as optional, but as a mandatory principle of training that must be considered for every program

Structural tolerance

This principle suggests that structural tolerance will result in the ability to sustain subsequently greater stresses in training, with a greater resistance to injury.

While structural tolerance is a positive side effect of most exercise, some clients may require specific activities or exercises that improve structural tolerance

Ex. a client who has a goal of running a marathon should have some exercises included in his program that specifically targets the ankles, knees, hips and back, as these areas will be stressed with marathon training

All-around development

This principle suggests that people who are well developed through components of fitness are less likely to sustain injury and more likely to perform better in sport and in life

Ex. a client who only wants to train cardio and dismisses flexibility and strength training is more likely to become injured should they ever need to call on their strength


This principle suggests that once training ceases, the body will gradually return to a pre-training state.

While at times frustrating to clients when faced with unexpected absences, the principle of reversibility should serve as a cautionary principle in that if the client is not consistent with their adherence to exercise they will lose the benefits and return to their pre-training state


This principle suggests that once a level of fitness has been achieved, it is possible to maintain it with less work than was needed to attain it.

Ex. to prevent the reversal of adaptation to exercise, your client could train as little as one third the volume, at the same intensity, for up to 12 weeks

Benefits of exercise

- Reduced risk of premature death

- Reduced risk of cardiovascular disease

- Decreased resting heart rate

- Normal resting blood pressure

- Decreased body fat

- Increased HDL (good) cholesterol and decreased LDL (bad) cholesterol

- Lowered risk of developing diabetes

- Increased muscular strength

- Stronger bones

- Increased resting metabolism

- Improved balance, coordination, and agility

- Reduced anxiety and depression

- Improved body image and self-confidence


Health risks associated of physical inactivity

Premature death

Heart disease


High blood pressure

Adult-onset diabetes




Colon cancer


Which of the following is not one of the primary components of fitness?

a. balance

b. body composition

c. flexibility

d. muscular capacity


Which of the following is not one of the components of performance based fitness?

a. coordination

b. agility

c. mental capacity

d. vertical jump

vertical jump

___________ is the ability to use all body parts together to produce smooth and fluid motion

a. agility

b. speed

c. balance

d. coordination


___________ is the product of strength and speed

a. muscular capacity

b. power

c. cardiorespiratory capacity

d. agility


ACSM recommends ____ min or more of moderate-intensity PA on most days of the week for cardiovascular health

a. 30 min

b. 10 min

c. 45 min

d. 60 min

30 min

Which of the following is not one of the recommendations from Canada's PA Guide to Healthy Active Living

a. flexibility (4-7 days)

b. strength (2-4 days)

c. balance (2-4 days)

d. endurance (4-7 days)


This principle suggests that programs and modifications to programs must be made to accommodate every person's individual needs


b. individualization

c. specificity

d. progressive overload


The following example best demonstrates, which principle: "A client who has a goal of running a marathon should have some exercises included in his program that specifically targets the ankles, knees, hips and back, as these areas will be stressed with marathon running"

a. specificity

b. individualization

c. structural tolerance


structural tolerance

This principle suggests that once training ceases, the body will gradually return to a pre-training state

a. reversibility

b. maintenance

c. recovery

d. specificity


Which of the following is not one of the other components of health that are just as important as physical health?

a. social health

b. emotional health

c. spiritual health

d. muscular capacity

muscular capacity

6 Essential Nutrients









Important energy source for working muscles and for the brain and nervous tissue.

Breaks down into glucose (used in production of ATP)

Examples of Carbs




Granola bars


Examples of Simple Carbs



Soft drinks

Examples of Complex Carbs




Examples of Proteins



Milk, eggs



Fat - lipids that are solid at room temperature

Oil - lipids that are liquid at room temperature

Major fuel source because they have a high concentration of calories

Fat provides essential FAs needed for cell membranes, production of hormones, healthy skin, feeling from satiety from meals, taste enhancement, and transportation of fat-soluble vitamins (A,D,E,K)

Examples of Fats

Peanut Butter




2 Types of Essential Fats



These fatty acids are essential because the body cannot produce them.

Omega-3s help to reduce inflammatory responses and reduce blood clotting and plasma triglycerides, so they may also reduce a person’s risk for heart attack.

Foods containing omega-6 fatty acids tend to be overconsumed in the modern diet, so an effort should be made to include foods that contain omega-3s.

Examples of Omega-6 FAs

safflower oil

peanut oil

vegetable oil

corn oil


Examples of Omega-3 FAs

cold-water fish

leafy green vegetables

flaxseed oil

fish oil

canola oil



Major role of protein is to build and repair body tissues, such as muscles, tendons, and ligaments.

What five strategies can you use to move your clients toward healthy eating?

1.Teach clients about Canada’s Food Guide.

2. Teach clients correct portion sizes

3. Teach healthy food choices

4. Teach them how to read ingredient lists and food labels.

5. Encourage them to consume calories evenly throughout the day.


Personal trainers are certified to provide..

a. diet analysis

b. diet modification

c. ergogenic supplementation prescriptions

d. general nutritional advice


Which of the following is not a macronutrient?

a. carbohydrate

b. vitamin A

c. protein

d. fat


Which of the following is a simple carbohydrate?

a. bread

b. pasta

c. honey

d. vegetables


The average Canadian drinks how many liters of pop a year

a. 50

b. 40

c. 100

d. 200


What is the required intake of fibre for women?

a. 25 grams

b. 38 grams

c. 32 grams

d. 20 grams


The higher the intensity of exercise, the greater reliance on

a. protein

b. fat

c. carbohydrate

d. water


Carbohydrate yields how many calories per gram?

a. 5

b. 4

c. 9

d. 7


Which type of fat represents 95% of the fat we consume?

a. sterols

b. phospholipids

c. wax

d. triglycerides


Fat yields how many calories per gram?

a. 9

b. 7

c. 8

d. 10


Which fat source should not be included in a healthy diet?

a. avocado

b. salmon

c. hydrogenated palm oil

d. almonds


Which of the following is not a function of fat?

a. hormon production

b. energy

c. source of vitamin B

d. taste enhancement


Which of the following is not a function of protein?

a. primary source of energy

b. muscle tissue building

c. hormone production

d. enzyme creation


Which recommendation will not maximize your dietary vitamin intake?

a. eat a variety of colorful fruits and vegetables

b. eat fresh fruits and vegetables as much as possible, especially those in season

c. eat a variety of processed foods

d. dont overcook vegetables; keep them a little crunchy


Which of the following functions does iodine perform?

a. regulates body fluid levels

b. essential in bone health

c. important in the formation of hemoglobin

d. regulates metabolism


Which of the following is not a function of water?

a. digestion and metabolism

b. assisting with chemical reactions

c. lubricating joints

d. none of the above


What percentage of total daily calories should be consumed as each of the following:

a. carbohydrates

b. proteins

c. fat

a. 45-65%

b. 10-35%

c. 20-35%

ATP-CP Phosphagen System

Provides fuel for up to 10 sec at maximal intensity

For the startup of intense activity, and especially for brief, very intense activity, this system provides the ATP for muscle contraction to occur

ATP-CP phase 1: stored ATP (fuel for 1-2 sec at max). When nervous system signals a muscle to contract, the ATP is split forming ADP and P with release of energy to allow the muscle to contract

ATP-CP phase 2: creatine phosphate. CP is the backup for ATP. CP splits, via creatine phosphate, to provide energy to re-form ATP from ADP

Examples of sports or activities that uses ATP-CP system


Glycolytic System

Provides fuel for up to 2 minutes at max intensity

A series of 10 enzymatically driven reactions that cause the breakdown of carbs in the form of glycogen stored in the muscle cell or glucose found in the blood

This method of metabolism creates energy in the form of two to three ATP. From glucose, 2 ATP are formed. From glycogen, 3 ATP are formed.

A 3-carbon compound called pyruvate is formed. This breakdown occurs without oxygen. The glycolytic energy pathway results in the reduction of pyruvate to form a cellular by-product called lactic acid.

The production of ATP using the glycolytic pathway is limited because of LA accumulation. Glycolysis is the prime producer of ATP from 10 sec to 2 min of intense exercise.

Examples of sports or activities that use Anaerobic glycolysis


Aerobic Glycolysis

Provides fuel for more than 3 min of exercise at moderate intensity

When oxygen is present, instead of pyruvate being converted to lactic acid, it enters a series of reactions known at the Krebs cycle and the ETC.

Mitochondria use either glucose or fat for fuel to create ATP. With this continuous supply of oxygen, the muscle cell beings to break down glucose in the presence of oxygen to produce ATP.

This system of ATP production is limited only by the ability of the cardiorespiratory system to deliver oxygen.

Examples of sports or activities that use Aerobic system


Fatty Acid Oxidation

Provides fuel for over 2 min during low-intensity exercise.

The muscle cell is also capable of using fatty acids to make ATP. It occurs in the mitochondria of the muscle cells when a continuous supply of oxygen is present. FAs are a high-energy fuel, but they are difficult to metabolize because a large amount of oxygen is required for this reaction to occur.

At rest and at low intensities of exercise, muscle cells can use FAs as a fuel because the demand for energy is low and the supply of oxygen is adequate

From rest to a high level of intensity, the body tries to adjust its supply of energy to the required demand by shifting the emphasis between the different energy systems


state of stability or balance in which all body functions occur easily and the demand for energy is comfortably met by the supply of available energy


the ability to do physical work


study of how energy flows in the human body


a useful form of energy or other physical activity


the sum of all chemical reactions in the body that either use or create energy

Examples of the utilization of the oxidative system

40 minute walks (low intensity for a prolonged time)

Triathlon events (combination of CHO and fat to produce ATP)

Examples of the utilization of the ATP-CP and glycolytic systems

Swimming (1 set x 50m sprints - 30-35 seconds (3 reps)) - high-intensity exercises relies mainly on ATP-CP and glycolytic systems

High-intensity weightlifting (2 sets of 6 reps - rest 4-5 min)

Work-to-rest ratio for ENDURANCE (oxidative)

1:0.5 to 1:1 (Walk 6 min, jog 4 min, repeat, for a total of 40 min)

Work-to-rest ratio for ATP-CP/Glycolytic

1:2 to 1:5

Work interval time should be between 20 seconds and 2 minutes; since her sprints last between 30-35 seconds and she performs 3 of them

What is ATP?

Adenosine Triphosphate

The ATP-CP system can fuel activity for approximately how many seconds?

a. 30

b. 10

c. 28.5

d. 3


The glycolytic energy pathway consists of how many enzymatically drive reactions?

a. 10

b. 15

c. 12

d. 8


Glycolysis will produce energy for movement up to...

a. 4 minutes

b. 60 seconds

c. 120 seconds

d. 1 minute


The final by-products of aerobic metabolism are..

a. carbon dioxide and water

b. carbonic acid

c. pyruvic acid

d. urea


Fatty acid oxidation results in the production of how many ATP molecules?

a. 25

b. 38

c. 100

d. 120


If you have to sprint to a bus that is 40 m away, what energy system will predominate for energy production?

a. Glycolytic system

b. ATP-CP system

c. Aerobic metabolism

d. Oxidative pathway


Which statement best describes the anaerobic threshold?

a. the point at which a person begins to feel nauseated

b. the point at which the aerobic system cannot supply enough ATP for the needs of the body

c. the point at which a person transitions from rest to movement

d. the point at which a person transitions from walking to running


EPOC serves which of the following functions?

a. ATP and CP replenishment

b. resolution of the disequilibrium in physiologic functions

c. reloading of oxygen to the myoglobin in muscles

d. all of the above


Which energy system is best for rapidly producing ATP?

a. lactic acid system

b. aerobic system

c. ATP-PC system

d. b and c


What is produced in the muscles when effort exceeds the oxygen supply?

a. amino acids

b. lactic acid

c. creatine phosphate

d. PFK


High-intensity interval conditioning is appropriate for which population?

a. sedentary people

b. beginning exercisers

c. elite athletes

d. bowlers


What type of relief should you use between work bouts in order to develop the ATP-CP system?

a. rest

b. work

c. skipping

d. jogging


A person running a standard marathon relies predominately on what system?


b. glycolytic system

c. aerobic system

d. a and b


Which statement is correct regarding the energy systems?

a. at any time all of the energy systems are being used and system predominance depends on intensity and duration

b. heavy weight training helps develop the aerobic system

c. golf mainly uses the oxidative system

d. conditioning the anaerobic system daily is essential for development


Learn the following chart

Cardiovascular system

Composed of the heart and a network of arteries and veins that carry blood throughout the body

Responsible for the circulation of blood throughout the body, transporting nutrients, oxygen, carbon dioxide, metabolic waste products, and key chemical messengers (hormones).

Also involved in maintaining core temperature of the body by transporting heat from the core to the skin where it can dissipate


A muscular pump that creates the pressure that is required to move blood through the circulatory system.

Has 4 chambers and functions as two pumps.

Pulmonary circulation (right pump)

Consists of the right atrium and right ventricle

Collects blood that is returning from the tissues and moving it through the lungs

Systemic circulation (left pump)

Consists of the left atrium and left ventricle

Receives blood from the lungs and moves it through the tissues of the body and back to the right side of the heart

Circulation of the heart

1. blood travels in arteries either to the lungs from the rights side of the heart or to body tissues from the left side

2. the blood returns to the heart through veins, which bring blood back to the left atrium from the lungs or to the right atrium from body tissues

3. at the start of the loop, oxygenated blood leaves the heart from the left ventricle through the aorta and travels from the arteries into microscopic vessels called arterioles, which then branch into even smaller vessels called capillaries.

4. at the capillary level, the blood passes by cells, where oxygen and nutrients are dropped off and carbon dioxide and other waste products are picked up for transport

5. after this gas exchange, the deoxygenated blood carrying the extra carbon dioxide leaves the arterial system and beings making its way back to the heart by way of veins

6. major veins from the upper and lower halves of the body empty directly into the right side of the heart. The blood passes from the right atria to the right ventricle, where it is pushed out through the lungs where the carbon dioxide will move out of the blood and oxygen will move in.

7. In the lungs, the blood picks up oxygen and drops off carbon dioxide through diffusion. Oxygenated blood then returns to the left atrium via pulmonary veins to start the circuit all over again.

Blood pressure

the result of blood being pumped out of the ventricles, exerting force against the arterial walls

Increases with increased exercise, though systolic and diastolic pressure measures do not both increase to a similar degree

Systolic pressure

the pressure exerted on the walls of the arteries as the heart contracts (peak pressure)

Diastolic pressure

the pressure exerted on the walls of the arteries as the heart relaxes and fills again (lowest pressure)

Heart rate

Pumps approx. 72 bpm at rest

Each time the heart pumps, it forces blood into the arteries to deliver oxygen and nutrients to the metabolically active tissues of the body

Increases with increased exercise intensity until exhaustion, when it begins to level off. Plateaus with constant work rate at submaximal exercise levels

Stroke volume

the amount of blood that the left ventricle ejects in one beat.

As a client becomes fitter, the ventricle become larger, allowing them to hold more blood and contract with more force. This causes SV to increase

Increases during exercise. Plateaus at exercise intensities between 40-60% of maximal capacity, and remains unchanged up to exhaustion

Cardiac Output

the amount of blood that the heart ejects in 1 minute. It is the product of HR and SV

Q = HR * SV

As demands for O and nutrients increase during exercise, cardiac output increases by increasing both HR and SV.

Increases with increased exercise intensity to ensure adequate oxygen and nutrients reach muscles and waste products are cleared away. Plateaus when Q approaches maximal exercise intensities

Respiratory System

Made up of the mouth, nose, nasal cavity, pharynx, larynx, trachea, bronchial tree, and the lungs

This system exchanges gas between the bloodstream and the environment. Provides a large interface between the air we breathe in and the blood circulating through our lungs, and it is at this interface where oxygen is brought into the bloodstream and carbon dioxide is removed from the blood


the mechanical process of moving air in and out of the lungs


the way gases are exchanged in the lungs

Respiratory anatomy

The mouth and nose inhale air from the atmosphere (21% oxygen)

The air travels through the trachea and enters the primary bronchi and their subdivisions (secondary and tertiary bronchi).

The ends of the tertiary bronchi branches contain bronchioles, which have tiny air sacs called alveoli at their ends.

The alveolar sacs are microscopic, thin-walled elastic sacs where gas is exchanged.

Air fills the alveoli, which are surrounded by capillaries where oxygen rapidly moves from the alveoli into the blood a process called diffusion.

The alveoli receive carbon dioxide from the capillaries for removal through exhalation.


Air moves in and out of the lungs along pressure gradients created by diaphragm contraction and relaxation.

Inspiration is the process of air moving into the lungs and occurs once lung pressure is below atmospheric pressure. This low pressure is created by the diaphragm contracting and pushing down into the abdomen while other inspiratory muscles lift the ribs upward and outward, increasing the volume of the thoracic cavity in which the lungs sit. This creates a partial vacuum and the lungs are sucked open, increasing their volume as a result of the enlarged chest cavity and reducing air pressure within the lungs.

Expiration is the passive process of air moving out of the lungs, occurring when lung pressure exceeds atmospheric pressure. When the diaphragm and the other inspiratory muscles relax and the stretched lungs recoil, the chest cavity decreases in volume, lung air pressure increases above atmospheric pressure, and air is forced out of the lungs.

Exercise response

at rest, 10 L/min

at 1 min, 45 L/min

at 2 min, 60 L/min

The brain recognizes the need for more O to the muscles. It signals the heart to increase HR and SV, which increases Q. The increase in blood volume increase the amount of blood that is carried to the exercising muscles.

Blood flow redistributes away from the abdominal area by vasoconstriction and increases the working muscles by vasodilation

There is also a change in BP to accommodate the increased demand for O. As the demand for blood flow increases, systolic pressure elevates to force blood out of the heart faster and at a higher pressure. Diastolic pressure should stay the same or even slightly decrease due to vasodilation of vessels in the exercising muscles, which reduces the resistance and pressure of the blood


narrowing of the arteries


widening of the arteries

Health benefits of Cardio training

Reduced risk of heart disease

Reduced resting HR

Normalized resting BP

Improved ability to perform daily activities

Increased aerobic capacity (VO2 max)






Frequency considerations

the # of sessions a client can commit to

the client's fitness level

the client's goals for cardio

Intensity considerations

The client's exercise experience

The client's fitness level

The client's goals for cardio

Duration considerations

The client's exercise experience

The client's fitness level

The client's goals for cardio

Type considerations

The client's exercise experience

The client's fitness level

The client's goals for cardio

3 ways trainers can facilitate effective recovery in their clients

1. reducing the intensity and impact of the exercise

2. reducing the range of motion of movements

3. directing clients to consciously start active recovery

Your VO2 max is

a. indicative of your maximum aerobic energy yields

b. the greatest amount of oxygen you can extract and utilize per unit of time

c. a measure of your aerobic capacity

d. all of the above


You can increase Q during exercise by..

a. increasing SV

b. decreasing resting HR

c. increasing BP

d. all of the above


The respiratory system is responsible for...

a. gas exchange between the lungs and blood

b. moving air into and out of the lungs

c. removing carbon dioxide from the blood

d. all of the above


Systolic BP is

a. the peak pressure developed during the ejection phase

b. the lowest pressure developed during the filling phase

c. the result of hypertension

d. the amount of blood pumped from the heart with each heartbeat


The target HR range for a healthy 20yr old male should be...

a. 110 to 150 bpm

b. 120 to 170 bpm

c. 140 to 190 bpm

d. 110 to 180 bpm


The Borg scale for prescribing exercise intensity is based on...

a. the lactate threshold

b. a % of Vo2 max

c. a % of HRmax

d. perceived exertion


Cooling down after activity prevents...

a. venous blood pooling

b. delayed muscle soreness

c. fatigue

d. heart disease


For program design, consider..

a. the client's exercise experience

b. the client's current fitness level

c. the client's goals for cardio

d. all of the above


An exercise intensity described as somewhat hard is equivalent to...

a. an RPE of 14-16

b. an HR between 65-80% of HRR

c. an HR of 60-79% of HRmax

d. all of the above


A 40yr old female with a resting HR of 75bpm would have a minimum HR of _____ to be in the target HR zone using the HRR method.

a. 122 bpm

b. 128 bpm

c. 142 bpm

d. 135 bpm


Which of the following increases VO2 max by increasing oxygen extraction?

a. increased capillary density

b. increased SV

c. increased BP

d. increased RBCs


The air we breathe in is..

a. 100% oxygen

b. 65% oxygen

c. 34% oxygen

d. 21% oxygen


At rest, the muscles receive ___% of the total blood moved from the heart, whereas during exercise, this can be ___%

a. 4;100

b. 20;84

c. 27;75

d. 21;58


Untrained people will have a higher resting HR because they..

a. require more O at rest

b. have high BP

c. have a lower SV

d. all of the above


Label the heart

Label the respiratory system

Skeletal System

206 bones joined to ligaments and tendons to form a protective, supportive framework for the attached muscles and the soft tissues that underlie it.

Functions of the skeletal system

1. protects the vital organs and soft tissue

2. serves as the factory where RBCs are produced

3. serves as a reservoir for minerals (Ca and P)

4. provides attachments for muscles to produce movement

Appendicular skeleton

Consists of two limb girdles (shoulder/pelvis) and their attached limb bones

Includes 126 bones, 64 in the shoulders and upper limbs and 62 in the pelvis and lower limbs

Axial skeleton

Consists of the skull, spine, ribs, and sternum

Includes 80 bones

Anatomical position

Person stands with arms at the sides, palms facing forward

Anterior & Posterior

front of the body

back of the body

Medial & Lateral

Parts closest to the midline of the body

Parts that are away from the midline of the body

Superior & Inferior

One body part is above another

One body part is below another

Supine & Prone

Body lies face up

Body lies face down

Dorsal & Plantar

Top of the foot

Bottom of the foot

Proximal & Distal

End of a bone or muscle that is closest to the body

End that is farthest from the body

Long bones

Serve as levers for movement

Ex. Femur, humerus

Short bones

Give strength to joints, but with limited mobility

Ex. Tarsals, Carpals

Flat bones

Provide a broad site for muscle attachment; protect the internal organs

Ex. ribs, scapula

Irregular bones

Protect the internal organs and support the body

Ex. ischium, pubis, vertebrae


Bending a joint (joint angle decreases)


Straightening a joint (joint angle increases)


When movement occurs beyond the normal joint ROM


When a bone moves away from the midline of the body

Ex. extending arm above shoulder


Bringing a bone toward the midline of the body

Ex. Returning the arm from above the shoulder, down to the side of the body


Circular movement that combines flexion, abduction, extension and adduction.

Occurs at ball-and-socket joints

Medial and Lateral Rotation

To rotate a joint, you turn the moving bone about its axis or centre.

Rotation toward the midline of the body is called medial (internal) rotation

Rotation away from the midline of the body is called lateral (external) rotation


External movement, or movement way from the midline of the body


Internal movement, or movement toward the midline of the body


Occurs at the ankle joint.

Turning the medial, or inner, side of the foot off the ground


Occurs at the ankle joint.

Turning the lateral, or outer, side of the foot off the ground


Shrugging the shoulder upward (scapular elevation)


Lowering the shoulders below anatomical position (scapular depression)


Where bones meet.

Three classifications of joints:

- synovial

- fibrous

- cartilaginous

Fibrous joints

Connect bones without allowing any movement.

Ex. bones of the skull, pelvis, verterbrae

Cartilaginous joints

Bones are attached by cartilage. These joints allow for only little movement.

Ex. spine, ribs

Synovial joints

Allow for more movement. These freely movable joints have cartilage long the surface of the bones that join together to reduce friction and absorb shock. They are enclosed by an articular capsule that holds the synovial fluid inside the joint cavity.

Three major type of synovial joints:

- hinge

- condyloid

- ball-and-socket

Hinge joints

Allow movement in one direction

Ex. elbow, knee

Condyloid joints

Allow movement in two directions

Ex. Wrist, ankle

Ball-and-socket joints

Allow movement in three directions and the largest ROM

Ex. shoulder, hip


Short band of tough, fibrous connective tissue composed mainly of long, stringy collagen molecules.

Connects bones to bones


Tough band of fibrous connective tissue attached on one end to a muscle and on the other to a bone.

Connects muscles to bones


Measure of the ROM around a joint or series of joints

Frequency: 4-7 days

Intensity: point of slight tension

Duration: 5-10 min

Benefits of flexibility training

- reduces stress in the exercising muscles and releases tension developed during workouts

- assists with posture

- reduces risk of injury during exercise

- improves performance of daily activities, exercise and sport


Static Stretching

involves taking a specific joint or set of joints though a ROM to a comfortable end point (20 sec), resting for 20 sec, then repeating the stretch 2 or 3 times

Dynamic Stretching

Uses increasingly dynamic movements through the full ROM of a joint.

Warms up the joints, maintains current flexibility, and reduces muscle tension

Guidelines for flexibility training

- don't overdo it

- breathe comfortably

- perform flexibility for each muscle group for total-body improvements

- work with warm muscles

- modify

The skeleton provides all of the following essential functions except..

a. protects the vital organs and soft tissue

b. is the factory for RBCs

c. acts as a reservoir for minerals

d. provides attachments for organs and blood vessels


What are the three categories of joints?

a. fibrous, cartilaginous, and synovial

b. fibrous, synovial, arthritic

c. cartilaginous, fibrous, and syndesmoses

d. cartilaginous, synovial, and fixed


A lever system consists of all of the following except

a. a bone to act as the lever

b. a joint that is the fulcrum or axis of rotation

c. muscular force applied to the lever that causes motion

d. two muscle groups and a fixed joint angle


In extension, the joint angle becomes

a. larger

b. smaller

c. weaker

d. stronger


Which type of vertebrae is the largest?

a. thoracic

b. sacral

c. lumbar

d. cervical


The longest bone in the body is the..

a. tibia

b. ulna

c. patella

d. femur


What is the anatomical name for shoulder blade?


What is the anatomical name for forearm?


What is the anatomical name for shinbone?


What is the anatomical name for kneecap?


What is the anatomical name for collar bone?


What is the anatomical name for thigh bone?


Label the anterior view of the skeleton

Label the posterior view of the skeleton

Label the vertebral column


Are attached to bone by tendons and they exert force by converting chemical energy into tension and contraction.

They are made up of millions of tiny protein filaments that work together to produce motion in the body.

Equipped with three types:

- cardiac muscle

- smooth muscle

- skeletal muscle

Cardiac muscle

found only in the heart, powers the action that pumps blood throughout the body.

Smooth muscle

surrounds or is part of the internal organs

Skeletal muscle

Carries out voluntary movements

Most abundant tissue in the body, making up 23% of a women's body weight and about 40% of a man's body weight

Muscle structure

More than 600 muscles are in the human body.

Skeletal muscles consist of bunches of elongated rod-shaped cells called muscle fibers. Each fibre is packed full of thinner fibres called myofibrils.


a smaller structural component that runs the length of the muscle.

Each myofibril is composed of a long series of sarcomeres.


the basic unit of muscle contraction and comprises of two proteins: actin and myosin

smallest unit of a muscle


thin filament within the sarcomere


thick filament within the sarcomere

Muscle contraction

In a relaxed muscle, thick and thin myofilaments overlap each other a bit. When a muscle cell is stimulated by a nerve impulse, these myofilaments slide past each other until they completely overlap. Myosin pull on the actin in order to pull the ends of the sarcomere closer together. The cell shortens, and as other cells shorten at the same time, so does the entire muscle.

Muscle force will be greater when more motor units are involved in a contraction. The motor units will be bigger and the rate at which the motor units fire will be faster.

3 types of contractions

1. Concentric

2. Eccentric

3. Isometric

Concentric contraction

Also called Isotonic

Movement occurs when the muscle contracts with enough force to shorten

Ex. lifting phase of a biceps curl

Eccentric contraction

Also called Isotonic

The muscle generates tension, but as it exerts force, it lengthens

Ex. lowering phase of a biceps curl

Isometric contraction

In this static contraction, the muscle exerts force to counteract an opposing force; no change in muscle length occurs

A muscle generates its greatest force at resting length.

Ex. holding the arm at a fixed angle of 90 degrees with resistance in one's hand

Basic Organization of the Nervous System

The ability to perform coordinated and skilled movement requires coordination between the muscular system and the nervous system.

Divided into two parts:



Nerve signals are transported in the body by neurons, or nerve cells. There are two kinds: sensory and motor.


Central Nervous System

Composed of the brain and spinal crd and is enclosed by the skull and spinal column.

It is the control centre of the nervous system because it receives information from the PNS and develops an appropriate response.


Peripheral Nervous System

Consists of nerves that connect the extremities to the brain.

It continuously delivers information about all body parts to the brain for processing

Sensory Neurons

Carry information and sensations from the body and environment to the CNS

Motor Neurons

Carry information from the CNS back to the muscles to create a response or movement


Specialized sensory receptors found in joints, muscles, and tendons. They are sensitive to pressure and tension and are responsible for sending messages to the CNS in order to maintain muscle tone and perform coordinated movements

Muscle spindles

Proprioceptors that consist of several modified muscle fibres enclosed in a blanket of connective tissue.

They provide information concerning muscle fibre length and the rate of change in its length.


Golgi-tendon organs are proprioceptors in the tendons.

They are activated when the tendon attached to an active muscle is stretched. They function similarly to the muscle spindles in that they also measure changes in the muscle.

The GTO only becomes activated when the muscle contracts. GTOs are not concerned with changes in muscle length, but rather with the increased tension of the muscle as a result of a change in its length.

They have a high-threshold, slowly adapting receptors and apparently serve, at least in part, to prevent excessive stresses in joints.

Fast-twitch muscle fibers

ATP is produced at the fastest rate

They contract quickly and produce a great deal of force, but fatigue quickly

They work anaerobically

Slow-twitch muscle fibers

Contains lots of mitochondria and capillaries for oxygen delivery

Contract slowly and produce a smaller amount of force than fast-twitch fibers, but are resistant to fatigue

Work aerobically

Factors that play a role in a muscle's ability to generate force (strength)

- Neural control (muscle force is greater when: more motor units are involved, motors units are bigger in size, and the rate at which the motor units fir is faster)

- Muscle size

- Muscle length

- Speed of contraction

5 Benefits of Resistance Training

- Size of muscle fiber

- Muscle contractile strength

- Muscle group coordination

- Contractile strength of tendons and ligaments

- Bone strength


Isometric Training

Length of the muscle does not change when force is applied against a fixed resistance.

- static muscle contraction

- does not require the limbs to move

- strength gains occur only within a certain range of the joint angle exercised

Isotonic Training

- includes either constant or variable resistance

- involves concentric muscle contractions

- involves eccentric muscle contractions

Isokinetic Training

- uses specialized equipment that controls the speed of movement

- resistance matches the strength of the muscle

- changes are accommodated in mechanical advantage

Circuit training

Sets of strength, cardio, and flexibility training combined with little or no time between sets

Straight Sets

Exercises completed on an even tempo, one at a time with 1 to 2 min of rest between sets of different muscle groups


Multiple sets combined in either or both ascending or descending fashion

Split Training

Muscle groups divided based on the client's goals, scheduled workout days, and personal preferences


Two or more sets combined with little or no rest for the same or different muscle groups

Improper resistance training programs can lead to:

- injury

- dissatisfaction or lack of enjoyment

- lack of results

- loss of clients



Muscles that reduce undesirable or unnecessary movements that might result as the prime mover contracts


Muscles that assume the major responsibility for producing a specific movement


Muscles that oppose, or reverse, a particular movement by a prime mover

Characteristics of good posture

A straight line through the ears, shoulder, hips, knees, and ankles

Head centered over the body

Shoulders, hips, and knees of equal height

Neutral spine, meaning the pelvis is not tipped forward or backward and the upper back is not curved forward

Muscles are attached to bones by..

a. ligaments

b. tendons

c. synergists

d. prime movers


The prime mover for elbow extension is the...

a. biceps

b. triceps

c. deltoid

d. pectoralis minor


The basic unit of muscle contraction is

a. the myofibril

b. the muscle fibre

c. the sarcomere

d. actin


The main responsibility of the PNS is to

a. deliver info about all body parts to the brain for processing

b. deliver info from the brain to the activated muscles

c. receive info from the muscles to produce coordinated movements

d. none of the above


The GTO is active when..

a. the muscle spindles send a signal

b. the tendon contracts

c. the muscle is relaxed

d. the tendon is relaxed


Muscle balance as it relates to a resistance training program means..

a. there should be equal focus on both the antagonist and the agonist muscle groups

b. equal weight is lifted on all muscle groups

c. the upper body and lower body should be trained on separate days

d. none of the above


The FITT formula stands for..

a. frequency, intensity, type and training

b. fast-twitch, intensity, type, and time

c. frequency, intensity, type and time

d. frequency, intensity, total load, and time


In the first 6 to 8 weeks of resistance training, beginners experience significant results. This is due to...

a. improvements in technique

b. improvements in motor unit recruitment

c. improved cardio performance

d. good spotting techniques


When the muscle length does not change, the action is..

a. isotonic

b. concentric

c. eccentric

d. isometric


The benefits of regular resistance training include all of the following except...

a. increases in muscle fiber size

b. increases in contractile strength

c. increases in bone and ligament strength

d. increases in flexibility


The recommended repetition range for a beginner is..

a. 12 to 15

b. 15 to 20

c. 8 to 10

d. fewer than 8


Name the antagonist muscles for the following agonists:

- quads

- triceps

- rectus abdominus

- gastrocnemius

- trapezius

- hamstrings

- biceps

- erector spinae

- tibialis anterior

- lattisimus dorsi

Name exercises to develop biceps

Cable Lat row

Barbell Lat row

Name exercises to develop deltoid

Barbell chest press

Cable Lat row

Name exercises to develop pectoralis major

Barbell Chest Press

Dumbbell Chest Fly

Name exercises to develop rectus abdominus

Shoulder to Knee Curl Up

Partial Ab Curl Up

Name exercises to develop lattisimus dorsi

Barbell Lat row

Cable Lat pull down

Name exercises to develop erector spinae

Barbell squats

Back Extension

Name exercises to develop gluteus maximus

Barbell squat


Name exercises to develop hamstrings

Machine Leg curl

Barbell squat

Name exercises to develop quadriceps

Barbell squat

Machine Leg extension

Name exercises to develop gastrocnemius

Dumbbell heel raise

Machine heel raise

Name exercises to develop tibialis anterior

Top Drop

What are some benefits of supersets?

- Increased LA production

- Time-efficient

- Muscle fiber activation

What are some benefits of split training?

- able to have variety

- train harder

- specific muscles are trained

List spotting guidelines for both upper- and lower-body exercises

- keep hands close to barbell without obstructing movement

- assist when predetermined movement decreases

- keep back in neutral position with knees flexed

Name the muscles involved in a Squat

Quads, Hip extensors, spinal extensors

Name the muscles involved in a Toe raise

Tibialis anterior

Name the muscles involved in a arm curl

Biceps group

Name the muscles involved in a lat pull down

lattisimus dorsi

biceps group

Name the muscles involved in a bench press

pectoralis major

triceps group

Name the muscles involved in a chin up

Up phase:

- lattisimus dorsi, teres major

- biceps, triceps

Down phase:

- lattisimus dorsi

- biceps, triceps


A message originating somewhere in the body that indicates a lack of normal tissue function or homeostasis.

Body tells us that something is wrong and needs investigation and possible treatment.

Two kinds of pain:

- Mechanical

- Systemic

Mechanical pain

result of damage to the musculoskeletal system in which pain is created by a mechanical action or motion

Systemic pain

the result of a disease, infection, or medical condition

Acute injury

results from the application of a single force or load, creating tissue damage and leading to immediate pain and dysfunction

Symptoms of an Acute injury

Can include one or more of the following:

- immediate pain

- stiffness

- muscle spasm

Signs of an Acute injury

Can include one or more of the following:

- immediate swelling at the injury site

- bruising

- redness and increased warmth

- tenderness

- loss of normal function

- loss of muscle strength

- loss of motion

List actions in the event of an acute injury

1. Professional medical opinion

2. Rest

3. Ice

4. Compression

5. Elevation


Recommendations for Acute Injuries

1. recommend a physician exam

2. discontinue training until a written endorsement is given

3. if undergoing treatment, contact physician to determine if exercising with you is ok or not.

4. unless instructed otherwise by a physician, recommend icing until the site of injury is no longer stiff and is no longer swollen.

Prevention of Acute injuries

1. Intrinsic risk factors are those that affect the tensile strength of a tissue during exercise and increase the risk of injury. Ex. muscle weakness, muscle inflexibility, muscle imbalances, joint laxity

2. Extrinsic risk factors are external to the client's physical and psychological status and include environmental factors such as temperature, humidity, exercise equipment, and fitness apparel or shoes

Steps to preventing acute injuries

1. profile your client for the presence of any intrinsic risk factors

2. use the client profile to select the safest and most appropriate exercises

3. use the profile to determine a safe and appropriate dose of exercise

4. ensure that your client is instructed on proper technique in all exercises, including warm up and cool down

5. ensure that your client can independently demonstrate proper execution of all exercises, including safe operation of any associated exercise equipment

6. ensure the safety of the exercise environment by maintaining the exercise equipment

Overuse injuries

Result from repetitive tissue loading over time in which no single load is sufficient to cause significant tissue damage and immediate pain

Symptoms of an Overuse injury

Can include one or more of the following:

- low-grade discomfort at the site of the injury

- discomfort in activities of daily living other than exercise

- sensation of stiffness at the site of the injury

- progression in the intensity of pain with continued exercise or activity

Signs of an Overuse injury

Can include one or more of the following:

- alteration of normal biomechanics to avoid pain

- swelling

- loss of pain-free motion with normal activities

- tenderness to touch

List the actions in the event of an Overuse injury

- modify their training program

- explore changes to their exercise technique or equipment

- monitor their symptoms with any progression in training volume

Prevention of Overuse Injuries

Three concepts:

- client education

- dose and volume of exercise

- progressing a training program

Overuse Injuries: Client Education

Overuse injuries are preventable through good communication and education with your clients.

Overuse Injuries: Dose and Volume of Exercise

The primary cause of overuse injuries is an imbalance between the physiological tissue damage created by an exercise or motion and the degree of tissue repair that's achieved before repeating the exercise.

The key to preventing overuse injuries is ensuring the exercise is not only appropriate for the client and their health profile but also the dose of exercise is appropriate, specifically in terms of frequency, intensity and volume.

Overuse Injuries: Progressing a Training program

To avoid an imbalance, the rate of progression should not exceed the client's rate of adaptability for their age and health profile

To reduce the risk of overuse injury in a new client, an argument could be made to error on the side of safety and limit any progression in a given exercise program to 10%

Responsibilities to prevent an Overuse Injury

- educate your clients on the consequence of exercising through pain

- educate clients that exercising a painful muscle or joint will likely only make their pain worse

- create an environment where clients are under no fear or pressure to exercise with pain

- ask your clients before every session if they are pain free

- profile your client for the presence of any intrinsic risk factors

- ensure that any equipment used by your client fits well and is in good operational condition

- use the client profile to select the most appropriate exercises

- using your profile, educate your client on a safe and appropriate rate of exercise progresion


Preexercise Screening allows you to do the following

- be professional and fulfill legal responsibilities (duty of care)

- identify a possible need to refer the client to additional health professionals

- understand the client better and establish good communication

- identify areas of strength or weakness based on previous injury

- develop a precise, individualized exercise program

- determine safe and effective exercise


Purpose of Preexercise Screening

Identifies people who have:

- known disease

- signs and symptoms of a disease that is as of yet undiagnosed

- increased cardiac risk

- risks inherent in activity due to their age


Risk factors for increased cardiac risk

- age (men over 45 and women over 55)

- family history of disease

- smoking

- hypertension & high BP

- high cholesterol

- diabetes

- sedentary lifestyle


Physical Activity Readiness Questionnaire


This form is used as an initial health screening tool, and is administered before clients begin a physical activity program.

Designed to identify people who require medical clearance before participating in a new exercise program, and it helps cover two prescreening topics: known disease and signs and symptoms

Appropriate for people between ages 15 and 69.

If one or more questions is answered "yes", they should seek medical advice before becoming more physically active

Health History Questionnaire

May include:

- client details (name, address, phone #, emergency contact)

- current medical conditions

- medication use and allergies

- current and past injuries

- treatment from health care professionals

- cardiac risks

- family health history

- past and present exercise history

- past and present nutritional information

- past and present work history


Determining risk for exercise from PAR-Q and HHQ

Process that involves risk stratification, or placing your client into one of three categories:

- apparently healthy

- increased risk

- known disease

Apparently healthy

Answered "no" to all of the questions on PAR-Q, exhibits no signs or symptoms of disease, and has no more than one major cardiac risk factor

These people are able to start a moderate-intensity exercise program and undergo fitness testing without a referral from a medical practitioner

Increased risk

Clients at increased risk will have two or more coronary risk factors but exhibit no signs or symptoms of cardiorespiratory or metabolic disorders.

These clients may start a progressive moderate-intensity program under close supervision.

SHOULD undergo clinically supervised maximal testing procedures

Known disease

Clients who have two or more coronary risk factors and exhibit positive signs or symptoms or have known cardiac, pulmonary, or metabolic disorders should be referred to a health professional for testing and exercise guidance


Any clients who answer "yes" to a question on the PAR-Q or have two or more cardiovascular risk factors along with positive signs and symptoms should be directed to consult with their physician before engaging in a physical activity program

Negligence may occur when

a. there is a breach of the duty to exercise due care

b. someone gets injured

c. someone dies

d. you do not fill your client's expectations


Which of the following is not a cardiac risk factor?

a. smoking

b. high BP

c. being a male over 35 years old

d. sedentary lifestyle


Preexercise screening must be able to identify those individuals who have any of the following:

a. risks inherent in activity due to their age

b. signs and symptoms of a disease that is as of yet undiagnosed

c. increased cardiac risk

d. all of the above



a. is a waiver for people between 15 and 75 years old

b. identifies cardiac risk factors

c. provides informed consent for physical activity

d. identifies people who should seek medical advice before becoming more physically active


An apparently healthy individual is one who

a. answered yes to all questions on the PAR-Q

b. has no more than three cardiac risk factors

c. can start a moderate-intensity exercise program without a medical referral

d. exhibits no more than two signs and symptoms of disease


Purpose of Fitness and lifestyle assessments

- determines a client's current health status

- determines lifestyle factors that may be counterproductive to the client's fitness goals

- identifies a client's actual fitness level for muscular strength, endurance, cardiovascular endurance, body comp, and flexibility

- determines the client's strengths and weaknesses for the purpose of goal setting and counselling

- isolates significant injuries or risk factors that might affect the client's ability to exercise with a PT

- develops a unique, individualized, and accurate exercise prescription for each client

- establishes a baseline and sets a standard for the client to measure future progress

- motivates clients, thus increasing exercise adherence and compliance


Resting Heart Rate

Measured by placing the fingers on a pulse site.

To get the most accurate reading, you can instruct clients to measure resting HR for at least 30 seconds in the morning before getting out of bed

Normal resting HR is 70 bpm for men and 75 bpm for women

A resting HR of 100 bpm or higher is a warning sign to look more closely at the client's overall health and request a doctor's clearance before training the client

Resting Blood Pressure

Measured using a stethoscope and a sphygmomanometer.

First tapping sound: systolic

When tapping quits: diastolic

Normal resting systolic pressure is 120 mmHg. Diastolic is 80 mmHG.

144/94 mmHg is normal.

Systolic higher than 140 or diastolic higher than 100 mmHg should be referred to a doctor for clearance to exercise

Testing order

1. Prescreening measures

2. Body comp analysis

3. Warm up

4. Cardiorespiratory fitness

5. Muscular strength and endurance

6. Flexibility

Body Composition Analysis

The purpose of assessing body comp is to divide the body into the primary tissue (muscle, fat, bone, organ) and chemical (lipid and nonlipid) masses.

Body Composition Measures

Skinfolds and Girths

Waist Girth Measurements

Bioelectric Impedence Analysis

Predicting Health risk

Skinfolds and Girths

Skinfolds measure the thickness of a double fold of skin and underlying adipose tissue (fat)

Girths measure the total circumference of either a limb or the trunk at predetermined levels. They include skin, fat, muscle and bone.

Waist Girth Measurements

Obtained to help identify fat distribution in the abdominal region which is associated with increased health risk

Bioelectric Impedance Analysis

Equipment send a mild electrical current through the body from the wrist to the foot. The more lean tissue the client has, the quicker the current; vice versa

Benefits of Bioelectric Impedance Analysis

- Quick, easy, and noninvasive

- no technician required

- analyzers are inexpensive

- analyzers provide a print out including fat-free mass, fat mass, the ratio of fat to total body mass, and ideal weight

Drawbacks of Bioelectric Impedance Analysis

- specificity of equations

- sensitivity of measured resistance to the placement of electrodes and hydration status

- variability among analyzers

Predicting Health Risk

Using clients' height and weight, you can determine their BMI, which indicates whether they are carrying an acceptable amount of body weight for their height.

BMI = kg/m(squared)

Cardiorespiratory Fitness

the efficiency of the cardiovascular, respiratory, and muscular systems at delivering and extracting oxygen for energy production and mechanical muscle work

The measurement of this fitness parameter is expressed as VO2 max, also known as maximal oxygen uptake

Rockport Walking Fitness Test

Walking test to assess cardiorespiratory fitness for men and women within the age range of 20-69 yrs.

Clients walk 1 mile as quickly as possible.

VO2 max = 132.853 - BW(lbs) - age + gender(1-m; 0-f) - time(min) - HR

Muscular Strength and Endurance Testing

Maximum amount of force that can be exerted one time, or in the 1-rep max (1RM).

Categorized into:

- normative

- nonnormative

Normative Strength Testing

Have values that rate the level of performance of the items being tested.

Ex. grip strength, 10-rep max test

Grip strength

Assesses upper-body strength using a hand-grip dynamometer, where the client squeezes the handle with maximal effort using both the right and left hands

Nonnormative Strength Tests

Do not possess any data for comparison and therefore there are no ratings.

Ex. Percent-improvement tests

Normative Muscular Endurance Tests

Two tests for muscular endurance:

- push-up protocol

- abdominal curl-up protocol

Push-up Protocol

The client performs as many push-ups as possible until muscular failure occurs.

Abdominal Curl-up Protocol

Measures endurance of the abdominal muscles by having the client perform a maximum number of curl-ups in 60 seconds.

Benefits of evaluating flexibility

Detecting muscle imbalances and joint instabilities helps you develop exercises that correct these weaknesses and reduce the risk of injury

Sources of Error in Fitness Testing

Client factors


Personal Training Skill

Environmental factors

Client factors

Familiarize them with the equipment and testing procedures.


May affect scores.

Be sure equipment is calibrated and in proper working condition

Personal Trainer Skill

Observation skills, technique mastery, and familiarity with testing protocols will allow for accurate test administration and results

Environmental factors

Room temperature, humidity, and people present may affect test scores.

Before testing, clients should be told:

a. to not exercise for 4 hours before

b. to not drink alcohol for 1 hour before

c. to not drink caffeine for 12 hours before

d. all of the above


Clients should not participate in the active portions of the fitness test if their resting...

a. HR is greater than 100

b. systolic BP is greater than 120

c. diastolic BP is less than 75

d. breathing rate is greater than 12 breaths per min


The tapping sounds heard when measuring BP are...

a. Korotkoff sounsd

b. HR

c. Cardiac output

d. pulse pressure


An example of a test of muscular endurance is

a. completion of one chin-up

b. repeated push-ups to exhaustion

c. grip strength test

d. the vertical jump


Prediction of VO2 max is dependent on measurement of..

a. BP

b. HR and workload

c. Height

d. all of the above


Four elements of Good Program Design

1. Safe

2. Effective

3. Efficient

4. Enjoyable



the systematic organization of training periods to facilitate the most efficient path from goal setting to goal attainment

canfitpro Model of Periodization components

- Macrocycle: largest; several months to years

- Mesocycle: intermediate; 1 to several months

- Microcycle: smallest; 1 to several weeks

Periodization both ensures more confidence in the expected outcome as well as provides a record to look back at after a certain amount of time and examine what worked and what did not.

Focuses on fitness as developed through strength training, cardiorespiratory training, and flexibility training.

Traditional Periodization

based on preparing for sport to improve technical skill, psychological stamina, and tactical training as well as fitness.

Application of Periodization to Program Design

One must balance stress with recovery. This balance is based on the clients' fitness, nutrition, and commitment to recovery.

canfitpro's Training Principles


2. Individualization

3. Specificity

4. Progressive overload

5. Recovery

6. Structural Tolerance

7. All-around development

8. Reversibility

9. Maintenance


5 Steps to Designing a Program

1. Information Gathering

2. Prioritization of Goals

3. Creation and Evaluation of the Program

4. Delivery of the Program

5. Reassessment


Information Gathering


- health screening results

- fitness assessment results

- health history

- exercise history

- client preferences

- client goals

- predicted obstacles

- available equipment inventory

- resources


Prioritization of Goals

By working with the clients, they will better understand the process, in addition to recognizing whatever obstacles may prevent them from achieving their goals

Creation and Evaluation of the Program

- Warm up

- Strength training

- Cardiorespiratory training

- Flexibility training and cool-down

- Breaks between exercises or modes of training

- Unforeseen interruptions


Warm Up

To make sure the body and mind are ready for the workout.

Strength Training

It is more efficient to continue the warm up and move right into the cardio training because the client is likely to already be on a piece of cardio equipment

If the client's goals include an emphasis on muscular development, the strength training should follow the warm-up so that the client has the most energy and enthusiasm for this component


Incorporated into the cool-down.

After cardio, the muscles will be warmed up and more pliable; the muscles will be more receptive to flexibility training

Choosing Exercises

Repetitions (reps)

a single complete movement or exercise

Ex. one rep of a dumbbell bicep curl


a combination of reps without rest

Ex. 12 reps of a dumbbell bicep curl


the amount of resistance used for a given exercise


the speed at which the exercise is performed


the time between sets of exercises

Open Kinetic Chain Exercises

The foot or hand is free to move in space, such as performing a seated leg extension or a lat-pull down or kicking a ball

Closed Kinetic Chain Exercises

The foot or hand is typically fixed and cannot move throughout the exercise, such as in performing a barbell squat or a chin-up or getting out of a chair

Factors for choosing equipment


- where the exercises are performed

- whether anyone else will be using the equipment

- how easy it is to perform the exercise correctly in the context of the client's skill and confidence


Establishing expectations

It is your responsibility to communicate clearly what they should expect of the process as well as what your expectations are for them and what expectations they should have of you

First training session

Goal of the first session is to orient the client to the program and lay the foundation for future sessions by teaching correct technique and increasing the client's self-confidence

Subsequent Training sessions

Important to continue to correct exercises and reinforce proper technique. Continually challenge clients by introducing new exercises or variations of existing exercises every few sessions

The __________ is the largest component of a periodized program.

a. mesocycle

b. macrocycle

c. microcycle

d. manocycle


To apply periodization to program design, you must balance stress with

a. proper nutrition

b. commitment

c. recovery

d. realistic goals


You can train for as little as ___ of the volume but at the same intensity for up to 12 weeks to prevent reversibility.

a. 1/4

b. 1/2

c. 2/3

d. 1/3


An example of specificity as applied to marathon training would be:

a. cycling to and from work M, W, and F

b. walking 10-15 min per day for 6 mths

c. running up and down stadium stairs

d. progressively running longer distances for 12 to 24 weeks before the marathon


After ceasing a regular workout routine of 3 days per week for 6 months, your client notices that muscle definition has begun to decrease. This is an example of:

a. specificity

b. recovery

c. reversibility

d. individualization


Which of the following components is not important to gather before designing a program?

a. exercise history

b. food intolerances

c. client goals

d. available equipment inventory


If your client's goal is muscular development, where should strength training be positioned in relation to the program?

a. after the warm up

b. before the warm up

c. after the cardio workout

d. after the workout


If you ask a client to perform an exercise with a temp of 3:1:5:0, the 3 represents what?

a. the eccentric action of the movement

b. the concentric action of the movement

c. the pause between eccentric and concentric action

d. the pause between concentric and eccentric action


Which of the following is a disadvantage of working with free weights?

a. free weights do not imitate real-world resistance

b. free weights are relatively low cost

c. free weights are sometimes hard to control

d. free weights are versatile


Describe the types of things you need to communicate to your clients about equipment that will permit them to work out on their own with confidence

- how to use it (technique)

- where it is located

- how to adjust it

What are some of the elements you need to watch for with clients after the first few sessions?

- correct exercises and proper technique

Balancing the Program

Balancing of components is critical, but only within the context of the individual client.

Requires you to have the creativity to design a program that is actually unbalanced in order to help balance the needs and goals of the client

Modifying Programs

To ensure optimal success, great personal trainers not only plan variety within their programs, they also anticipate when and where clients will need variation

When to change a program

Rule of thumb: every 2 weeks

Steps to making changes to your client's program

1. tell clients that you will be making changes on a regular basis

2. inform them that you will be making a change

3. make changes slowly and incrementally

4. anticipate areas of difficulty or risk given the changes and plan for them

5. assess results from changes

6. be flexible and make adjustments

7. ask clients for feedback


The Program Card

Some cards simply outline the exercises to be performed, whereas others may provide space to record progress, while others may include illustrations to remind the client of the exercise

Program Card Elements

- client identification

- exercises

- sets and set performance

- reps and tempo of the reps

- rest between sets

- cues or comments to remind the client on how to perform the exercise


Qualities of an effective Personal Trainer

- Knowledgeable

- Supportive

- Model of Healthy behaviour

- Trustworthy

- Enthusiastic

- Innovative

- Patient

- Sensitive

- Self-aware

- Able to access material resources and services

- Able to generate expectations of success

- Committed to providing timely, specific feedback

- Capable of providing clear, reasonable instructions and plans


Appropriate Behaviours for PTs

- Maintain a strictly professional relationship with all clients

- Only give exercise-related advice to clients in areas in which you have received formal training

- Only design programs for clients who are relatively healthy and free of any special conditions or diseases unless you have been trained to work with this type of client


Stages of Change Model

1. Pre-contemplation

2. Contemplation

3. Preparation

4. Action

5. Maintenance



The person is not seriously thinking about changing or starting an exercise program

- increase awareness of exercise

- pros/cons of exercise

- general education

- discuss health risks

- discuss myths and fears


The person has started to think about exercising or changing behaviour and has most likely identified a course of action

- continue with education

- specific recommendations

- identify support system

- increase self-confidence


The person has actually begun to plan for the change and may have made some minor changes in behaviour

- evaluate support system and barriers

- provide personalized exercises

- work on goal setting and action


The person has taken action and has begun to make changes, but it has been less than 6 months since the person started making these changes

- talk about self-monitoring

- talk about self-reinforcement

- enhance SE

- try to prevent relapses

- deal with relapses

- provide encouragement


Begins 6 months after the person has successfully adhered to an exercise program

- review and revise goals and program

- try to prevent relapses

- provide social support

Motivational strategies

- provide positive behavioural feedback

- encourage group participation and group support

- recruit spouse and peers

- provide a flexible routine

- provide periodic exercise testing

- use behavioural change strategies

- chart progress on record cards

- recognize goal achievement

- make fitness fun


Lifestyle Fitness coaching

An ongoing and guided process of dialogue between a client and a health fitness professional that is:

- informed by comprehensive fitness-related data about clients needs, interests, and personal orientations

- directed toward broad-based goals of personal and health gains that are attained through sustained involvement in physical activities, which are adjusted periodically according to the clients' evolving life agendas

The cognitive variables that have been the best predictors of physical activity are __________ and __________.

a. self-efficacy; self-reliance

b. self-efficacy; self-motivation

c. goal setting; experience

d. goal setting; ability to focus


Studies have shown that women tend to prefer to exercise

a. on their own

b. in small groups

c. with a partner

d. in the water


The stages of change model is also known as the

a. behaviour modification model

b. transmyopic model

c. transfat model

d. transtheoretical model


During this stage, the client has started to think about exercising and has most likely identified a potential course of action

a. preparation

b. action

c. contemplation

d. precontemplation


Self-monitoring and self-reinforcement are characteristics of what stage?

a. preparation

b. action

c. contemplation

d. precontemplation


4 P's to marketing






The product is actually you and your services.

3 factors when looking at your product:

- differentiation

- development

- positioning


refers to your ability to separate yourself from other personal trainers and make yourself unique


Constantly looking for ways to offer new programming ideas or information that will keep clients motivated and working toward their goals


perception that people have of you and your business

Steps to selling your services

1. focus on the prospective clients and what they want

2. show them how you can help them achieve their goals

3. develop an action plan that outlines what you will do and the results they will see

4. ask for feedback on the plan

5. present your prices

6. overcome any objections

7. follow up


Ways to present prices

Alternate close method

Assumptive close method

Suggestive close method

Trial close method

Alternate close method

You present two option sand then ask which is best for the person

Assumptive close method

You are assuming the person will purchase from you.

Suggestive close method

You are suggesting what the person should purchase

Trial close method

Used before the actual sale presentation and before asking for the sale

You are asking people what they think of things throughout the process

Overcoming objections

Common objections:

- i want to think about it

- its too much money

- i need to talk it over with someone

You need to accept that objections are going to happen. The majority of objections can be dealt with ahead of time through the use of proper trial closes.

1. Clarify the objection (why or what?)

2. Answer questions, if any

Ways to follow up

- call to thank new clients for trusting you with their business

- call them to see if they have any questions and to find out what needs to happen to get them back in

- call them to see how they are feeling after their first workout


Professional Image

- Dress appropriately

- Establish proper grooming


Client-Trainer Relationship

One of the keys to a good client-trainer relationship is that both parties know what to expect from each other. Best way to do this is by formalizing them into a document.

Topics of client-trainer relationship agreement

- term of the agreement (length)

- fees and payment structure

- cancellation policy

- late policy

- refund policy

- informed consent


Other areas to pay attention to:

- professional image

- integrity

- motivation and attitude

- personality types

- general communication


Guidelines for Risk Management

- Always act within the canfitpro scope of practice

- Act in a reasonable and prudent manner

- Ensure that all of your clients have filled out PAR-Q

- Ensure that all clients have signed a waiver

- Ensure that you have followed up with your clients on any areas within the health history that are of concern and that clients get written authorization from a physician

- Ensure that your clients are always safe and working within their own capabilities

- After initial assessment and program design, it is your responsibility to continually reassess your clients

- Ensure that your CPR certification is always up to date

- If you are not an employee of a company, you are required to have your own liability insurance


Litigious Situations

- working outside your scope of practice

- prescribing exercise to injured clients

- designing meal plans

- exposing clients to unsafe or risky exercises

- making false claims that cannot be supported in research


Policies and Procedures

- establish a fixed pricing policy and don't sway from it unless critical

- cancellation with less than 24 hrs notice, clients should be charged for that session

- clients should be offered a money-back guarantee if they are not satisfied


Which of the following is not one of the 4 P's of marketing?

a. product

b. price

c. place

d. program


The isochrone is typically a travel radius of ___ minutes around your location?

a. 5-7

b. 8-12

c. 15-20

d. 20-30


________ is the perception that people have about you and your business.

a. positioning

b. pricing

c. differentiation

d. marketing


The key to long-term success as a PT is your ability to recognize...

a. traffic

b. phone calls

c. referrals

d. publicity


Asking "when can we get started?" is an example of which type of closing method?

a. trial close

b. alternate close

c. suggestive close

d. assumptive close


Which of the following is not an important part of the PT agreement?

a. appointment time

b. fees

c. cancellation policy

d. informed consent