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Personal trainer

Any certified person who works with clients in a one-on-one or group setting where the goal is to improve the client's level of fitness or health

Benefits of being a PT

- Provides the opportunity to help people reach their goals and do things they didn't think they could do


- You can set your own hours and decide how much you want to work


- Once you have a clientele built up, your business will grow our sustain itself almost exclusively from referrals


- An unlimited amount of educational material and support allows you to expand your knowledge base whenever you want


- Has high income potential


- Has low startup costs compared with many other careers and businesses

PYOAHH

Physical Fitness

An improved physiological state that leads to improved health and longevity

4 PRIMARY components of fitness

Cardiorespiratory capacity


Muscular capacity


Flexibility


Body composition

CMFB

Cardiorespiratory capacity

The ability of the body to take in oxygen (respiration), deliver it to the cells (circulation), and use it at the cellular level to create energy (bioenergetics) for physical work (activity).

Muscular capacity

Refers to the spectrum of muscular capability. This includes muscular endurance (ability to apply force over a long period of time or repeated contractions), muscular strength (ability to generate force per 1 contraction) and muscular power (ability to generate strength in an explosive way)

Flexibility

Range of movement or amount of motion that a joint is capable of performing




Is a measure of the ROM around a joint




Tends to decrease as people mature into adulthood




Is limited by the joint's physical structure, including bone, connective tissue, and muscle




Is needed by all people




Decreases chance of injury during workouts

Body composition

The proportion of fat-free mass (muscle, bone, blood, organs, and fluids) to fat mass (adipose tissue deposited under the skin and around the organs)

7 SECONDARY components of fitness

Balance


Coordination


Agility


Reaction time


Speed


Power


Mental capacity

BCARSPM

Balance

Ability to maintain a specific body position in either a stationary or dynamic situation

Coordination

Ability to use all body parts together to produce smooth and fluid motion

Agility

Ability to change direction quickly

Reaction time

Time required time respond to a specific stimulus

Speed

Ability to move rapidly.



Aka velocity

Power

Product of strength and speed

Mental capability

Ability to concentrate during exercise to improve training effects as well as the ability to relax and enjoy the psychological benefits of activity (endorphins)

4 non-physical components of health

Social health


Mental health


Emotional health


Spiritual health

SMES

Social health

Ability to interact well with people and the environment and to have satisfying personal relationships

Mental health

Ability to learn and grow intellectually. Life experiences as well as more formal structures, like school, enhance mental health

Emotional health

Ability to control emotions so that you feel comfortable expressing them and can express them appropriately

Spiritual health

A belief in some unifying force. Varies from person to person but has the concept of faith at its core

Wellness

The search for enhanced quality of life, personal growth, and potential through positive lifestyle behaviors and attitudes

Factors that influence wellness

Nutrition


Physical activity


Stress-coping methods


Good relationships


Career success

NPSGC

Canada's PA ENDURANCE guidelines

Endurance - on 4 to 7 days a week, perform continuous activity for your heart, lungs, and circulatory system.


Time required for improvements depends on effort (30-60 min; moderately)

Canada's PA FLEXIBILITY guidelines

Flexibility - on 4 to 7 days a week, perform gentle reaching, bending and stretching to keep muscles relaxed and joints mobile

Canada's PA STRENGTH guidelines

Strength - on 2 to 4 days a week, perform resistance exercise to strengthen muscles and bones and improve posture

ACSM PA guidelines

Perform 30 minutes or more of moderate-intensity PA on most days of the week for cardiovascular health. The 30 min need not be continuous



Performing 1 set of 8 to 12 reps of resistance training for the entire body is necessary to maintain and develop muscular strength and endurance



Flexibility training should be performed daily, including stretches for all major muscle groups, in order to maintain mobility

9 training principles

FITT


Individualization


Specificity


Progressive overload


Recovery


Structural tolerance


All-around development


Reversibility


Maintenance

FISPRARM

FITT

This principle suggests that when designing a PT program, the frequency, intensity, time and type of exercise must be considered.




Frequency - how often the client should be performing a component of their program




Intensity - the difficulty level of the component of their program




Time - how long each component should last and how much rest the clients should have




Type - the choice of exercise used for a given component of their program

Individualization

This principle suggests that programs and mods to programs must be made to accommodate every person's individual needs




Ex. Two people with the same goal may require very different programs to achieve this goal

Specificity

This principle suggests that if clients want to improve an aspect of their performance, they have to train that aspect.




Ex. If a client wants to be a better runner, strength training will probably deliver measurable improvements, but the client will still have to continue to run to optimize their results

Progressive overload

This principle suggests that to improve, clients must continually challenge their fitness.




Ex. if the client's fitness is not progressively challenged, the client will plateau, or cease to make improvements

Recovery

This principle becomes increasingly important as the clients' workouts become more successful. Recovery should not be seen as optional, but as a mandatory principle of training that must be considered for every program

Structural tolerance

This principle suggests that structural tolerance will result in the ability to sustain subsequently greater stresses in training, with a greater resistance to injury.




While structural tolerance is a positive side effect of most exercise, some clients may require specific activities or exercises that improve structural tolerance




Ex. a client who has a goal of running a marathon should have some exercises included in his program that specifically targets the ankles, knees, hips and back, as these areas will be stressed with marathon training

All-around development

This principle suggests that people who are well developed through components of fitness are less likely to sustain injury and more likely to perform better in sport and in life




Ex. a client who only wants to train cardio and dismisses flexibility and strength training is more likely to become injured should they ever need to call on their strength



Reversibility

This principle suggests that once training ceases, the body will gradually return to a pre-training state.




While at times frustrating to clients when faced with unexpected absences, the principle of reversibility should serve as a cautionary principle in that if the client is not consistent with their adherence to exercise they will lose the benefits and return to their pre-training state

Maintenance

This principle suggests that once a level of fitness has been achieved, it is possible to maintain it with less work than was needed to attain it.




Ex. to prevent the reversal of adaptation to exercise, your client could train as little as one third the volume, at the same intensity, for up to 12 weeks

Benefits of exercise

- Reduced risk of premature death


- Reduced risk of cardiovascular disease


- Decreased resting heart rate


- Normal resting blood pressure


- Decreased body fat


- Increased HDL (good) cholesterol and decreased LDL (bad) cholesterol


- Lowered risk of developing diabetes


- Increased muscular strength


- Stronger bones


- Increased resting metabolism


- Improved balance, coordination, and agility


- Reduced anxiety and depression


- Improved body image and self-confidence

RRDNDILISIIRI

Health risks associated of physical inactivity

Premature death


Heart disease


Obesity


High blood pressure


Adult-onset diabetes


Osteoporosis


Stroke


Depression


Colon cancer

PHOHAOSDC

Which of the following is not one of the primary components of fitness?

a. balance


b. body composition


c. flexibility


d. muscular capacity

balance

Which of the following is not one of the components of performance based fitness?

a. coordination


b. agility


c. mental capacity


d. vertical jump

vertical jump

___________ is the ability to use all body parts together to produce smooth and fluid motion

a. agility


b. speed


c. balance


d. coordination

coordination

___________ is the product of strength and speed

a. muscular capacity


b. power


c. cardiorespiratory capacity


d. agility

power



ACSM recommends ____ min or more of moderate-intensity PA on most days of the week for cardiovascular health

a. 30 min


b. 10 min


c. 45 min


d. 60 min

30 min

Which of the following is not one of the recommendations from Canada's PA Guide to Healthy Active Living

a. flexibility (4-7 days)


b. strength (2-4 days)


c. balance (2-4 days)


d. endurance (4-7 days)

balance

This principle suggests that programs and modifications to programs must be made to accommodate every person's individual needs

a. FITT


b. individualization


c. specificity


d. progressive overload

individualization

The following example best demonstrates, which principle: "A client who has a goal of running a marathon should have some exercises included in his program that specifically targets the ankles, knees, hips and back, as these areas will be stressed with marathon running"

a. specificity


b. individualization


c. structural tolerance


d. FITT

structural tolerance

This principle suggests that once training ceases, the body will gradually return to a pre-training state

a. reversibility


b. maintenance


c. recovery


d. specificity

reversibility

Which of the following is not one of the other components of health that are just as important as physical health?

a. social health


b. emotional health


c. spiritual health


d. muscular capacity

muscular capacity

6 Essential Nutrients

Carbs


Fats


Proteins


Vitamins


Minerals


Water

CFPVMW

Carbohydrates

Important energy source for working muscles and for the brain and nervous tissue.




Breaks down into glucose (used in production of ATP)

Examples of Carbs

Bagels


Pasta


Potatoes


Granola bars

BPPG

Examples of Simple Carbs

Fruit


Pastries


Soft drinks

Examples of Complex Carbs

Potatoes


Pasta


Vegetables

Examples of Proteins

Chicken


Salmon


Milk, eggs

CSM

Fat

Fat - lipids that are solid at room temperature


Oil - lipids that are liquid at room temperature




Major fuel source because they have a high concentration of calories




Fat provides essential FAs needed for cell membranes, production of hormones, healthy skin, feeling from satiety from meals, taste enhancement, and transportation of fat-soluble vitamins (A,D,E,K)

Examples of Fats

Peanut Butter


Nuts


Butter

PNB

2 Types of Essential Fats

Linoleic


Linolenic




These fatty acids are essential because the body cannot produce them.


Omega-3s help to reduce inflammatory responses and reduce blood clotting and plasma triglycerides, so they may also reduce a person’s risk for heart attack.


Foods containing omega-6 fatty acids tend to be overconsumed in the modern diet, so an effort should be made to include foods that contain omega-3s.

Examples of Omega-6 FAs

safflower oil


peanut oil


vegetable oil


corn oil

SPVC

Examples of Omega-3 FAs

cold-water fish


leafy green vegetables


flaxseed oil


fish oil


canola oil

CLFFC

Protein

Major role of protein is to build and repair body tissues, such as muscles, tendons, and ligaments.

What five strategies can you use to move your clients toward healthy eating?

1.Teach clients about Canada’s Food Guide.


2. Teach clients correct portion sizes


3. Teach healthy food choices


4. Teach them how to read ingredient lists and food labels.


5. Encourage them to consume calories evenly throughout the day.

TTTTE

Personal trainers are certified to provide..

a. diet analysis


b. diet modification


c. ergogenic supplementation prescriptions


d. general nutritional advice

d

Which of the following is not a macronutrient?

a. carbohydrate


b. vitamin A


c. protein


d. fat

b

Which of the following is a simple carbohydrate?

a. bread


b. pasta


c. honey


d. vegetables

c

The average Canadian drinks how many liters of pop a year

a. 50


b. 40


c. 100


d. 200

c

What is the required intake of fibre for women?

a. 25 grams


b. 38 grams


c. 32 grams


d. 20 grams

a

The higher the intensity of exercise, the greater reliance on

a. protein


b. fat


c. carbohydrate


d. water

c

Carbohydrate yields how many calories per gram?

a. 5


b. 4


c. 9


d. 7

b

Which type of fat represents 95% of the fat we consume?

a. sterols


b. phospholipids


c. wax


d. triglycerides

d

Fat yields how many calories per gram?

a. 9


b. 7


c. 8


d. 10

a

Which fat source should not be included in a healthy diet?

a. avocado


b. salmon


c. hydrogenated palm oil


d. almonds

c

Which of the following is not a function of fat?

a. hormon production


b. energy


c. source of vitamin B


d. taste enhancement

c

Which of the following is not a function of protein?

a. primary source of energy


b. muscle tissue building


c. hormone production


d. enzyme creation

a

Which recommendation will not maximize your dietary vitamin intake?

a. eat a variety of colorful fruits and vegetables


b. eat fresh fruits and vegetables as much as possible, especially those in season


c. eat a variety of processed foods


d. dont overcook vegetables; keep them a little crunchy

c

Which of the following functions does iodine perform?

a. regulates body fluid levels


b. essential in bone health


c. important in the formation of hemoglobin


d. regulates metabolism

d

Which of the following is not a function of water?



a. digestion and metabolism


b. assisting with chemical reactions


c. lubricating joints


d. none of the above

d



What percentage of total daily calories should be consumed as each of the following:


a. carbohydrates


b. proteins


c. fat

a. 45-65%


b. 10-35%


c. 20-35%

ATP-CP Phosphagen System

Provides fuel for up to 10 sec at maximal intensity




For the startup of intense activity, and especially for brief, very intense activity, this system provides the ATP for muscle contraction to occur




ATP-CP phase 1: stored ATP (fuel for 1-2 sec at max). When nervous system signals a muscle to contract, the ATP is split forming ADP and P with release of energy to allow the muscle to contract




ATP-CP phase 2: creatine phosphate. CP is the backup for ATP. CP splits, via creatine phosphate, to provide energy to re-form ATP from ADP

Examples of sports or activities that uses ATP-CP system

Volleyball

Glycolytic System

Provides fuel for up to 2 minutes at max intensity




A series of 10 enzymatically driven reactions that cause the breakdown of carbs in the form of glycogen stored in the muscle cell or glucose found in the blood




This method of metabolism creates energy in the form of two to three ATP. From glucose, 2 ATP are formed. From glycogen, 3 ATP are formed.




A 3-carbon compound called pyruvate is formed. This breakdown occurs without oxygen. The glycolytic energy pathway results in the reduction of pyruvate to form a cellular by-product called lactic acid.




The production of ATP using the glycolytic pathway is limited because of LA accumulation. Glycolysis is the prime producer of ATP from 10 sec to 2 min of intense exercise.

Examples of sports or activities that use Anaerobic glycolysis

Basketball

Aerobic Glycolysis

Provides fuel for more than 3 min of exercise at moderate intensity




When oxygen is present, instead of pyruvate being converted to lactic acid, it enters a series of reactions known at the Krebs cycle and the ETC.




Mitochondria use either glucose or fat for fuel to create ATP. With this continuous supply of oxygen, the muscle cell beings to break down glucose in the presence of oxygen to produce ATP.




This system of ATP production is limited only by the ability of the cardiorespiratory system to deliver oxygen.

Examples of sports or activities that use Aerobic system

Marathon

Fatty Acid Oxidation

Provides fuel for over 2 min during low-intensity exercise.




The muscle cell is also capable of using fatty acids to make ATP. It occurs in the mitochondria of the muscle cells when a continuous supply of oxygen is present. FAs are a high-energy fuel, but they are difficult to metabolize because a large amount of oxygen is required for this reaction to occur.




At rest and at low intensities of exercise, muscle cells can use FAs as a fuel because the demand for energy is low and the supply of oxygen is adequate




From rest to a high level of intensity, the body tries to adjust its supply of energy to the required demand by shifting the emphasis between the different energy systems

Homeostasis

state of stability or balance in which all body functions occur easily and the demand for energy is comfortably met by the supply of available energy

Energy

the ability to do physical work

Bioenergetics

study of how energy flows in the human body

ATP

a useful form of energy or other physical activity

Metabolism

the sum of all chemical reactions in the body that either use or create energy

Examples of the utilization of the oxidative system

40 minute walks (low intensity for a prolonged time)


Triathlon events (combination of CHO and fat to produce ATP)

Examples of the utilization of the ATP-CP and glycolytic systems

Swimming (1 set x 50m sprints - 30-35 seconds (3 reps)) - high-intensity exercises relies mainly on ATP-CP and glycolytic systems




High-intensity weightlifting (2 sets of 6 reps - rest 4-5 min)

Work-to-rest ratio for ENDURANCE (oxidative)

1:0.5 to 1:1 (Walk 6 min, jog 4 min, repeat, for a total of 40 min)

Work-to-rest ratio for ATP-CP/Glycolytic

1:2 to 1:5


Work interval time should be between 20 seconds and 2 minutes; since her sprints last between 30-35 seconds and she performs 3 of them

What is ATP?

Adenosine Triphosphate

The ATP-CP system can fuel activity for approximately how many seconds?

a. 30


b. 10


c. 28.5


d. 3

b

The glycolytic energy pathway consists of how many enzymatically drive reactions?

a. 10


b. 15


c. 12


d. 8



a

Glycolysis will produce energy for movement up to...

a. 4 minutes


b. 60 seconds


c. 120 seconds


d. 1 minute

c

The final by-products of aerobic metabolism are..

a. carbon dioxide and water


b. carbonic acid


c. pyruvic acid


d. urea

a

Fatty acid oxidation results in the production of how many ATP molecules?

a. 25


b. 38


c. 100


d. 120

c

If you have to sprint to a bus that is 40 m away, what energy system will predominate for energy production?

a. Glycolytic system


b. ATP-CP system


c. Aerobic metabolism


d. Oxidative pathway

a

Which statement best describes the anaerobic threshold?

a. the point at which a person begins to feel nauseated


b. the point at which the aerobic system cannot supply enough ATP for the needs of the body


c. the point at which a person transitions from rest to movement


d. the point at which a person transitions from walking to running

b

EPOC serves which of the following functions?

a. ATP and CP replenishment


b. resolution of the disequilibrium in physiologic functions


c. reloading of oxygen to the myoglobin in muscles


d. all of the above

d

Which energy system is best for rapidly producing ATP?

a. lactic acid system

b. aerobic system


c. ATP-PC system


d. b and c


c

What is produced in the muscles when effort exceeds the oxygen supply?

a. amino acids


b. lactic acid


c. creatine phosphate


d. PFK

b

High-intensity interval conditioning is appropriate for which population?

a. sedentary people


b. beginning exercisers


c. elite athletes


d. bowlers

c

What type of relief should you use between work bouts in order to develop the ATP-CP system?

a. rest


b. work


c. skipping


d. jogging

a

A person running a standard marathon relies predominately on what system?

a. ATP-CP


b. glycolytic system


c. aerobic system


d. a and b

c

Which statement is correct regarding the energy systems?

a. at any time all of the energy systems are being used and system predominance depends on intensity and duration


b. heavy weight training helps develop the aerobic system


c. golf mainly uses the oxidative system


d. conditioning the anaerobic system daily is essential for development

a

Learn the following chart

Cardiovascular system

Composed of the heart and a network of arteries and veins that carry blood throughout the body




Responsible for the circulation of blood throughout the body, transporting nutrients, oxygen, carbon dioxide, metabolic waste products, and key chemical messengers (hormones).




Also involved in maintaining core temperature of the body by transporting heat from the core to the skin where it can dissipate

Heart

A muscular pump that creates the pressure that is required to move blood through the circulatory system.




Has 4 chambers and functions as two pumps.

Pulmonary circulation (right pump)

Consists of the right atrium and right ventricle




Collects blood that is returning from the tissues and moving it through the lungs

Systemic circulation (left pump)

Consists of the left atrium and left ventricle




Receives blood from the lungs and moves it through the tissues of the body and back to the right side of the heart

Circulation of the heart

1. blood travels in arteries either to the lungs from the rights side of the heart or to body tissues from the left side


2. the blood returns to the heart through veins, which bring blood back to the left atrium from the lungs or to the right atrium from body tissues


3. at the start of the loop, oxygenated blood leaves the heart from the left ventricle through the aorta and travels from the arteries into microscopic vessels called arterioles, which then branch into even smaller vessels called capillaries.


4. at the capillary level, the blood passes by cells, where oxygen and nutrients are dropped off and carbon dioxide and other waste products are picked up for transport


5. after this gas exchange, the deoxygenated blood carrying the extra carbon dioxide leaves the arterial system and beings making its way back to the heart by way of veins


6. major veins from the upper and lower halves of the body empty directly into the right side of the heart. The blood passes from the right atria to the right ventricle, where it is pushed out through the lungs where the carbon dioxide will move out of the blood and oxygen will move in.


7. In the lungs, the blood picks up oxygen and drops off carbon dioxide through diffusion. Oxygenated blood then returns to the left atrium via pulmonary veins to start the circuit all over again.

Blood pressure

the result of blood being pumped out of the ventricles, exerting force against the arterial walls




Increases with increased exercise, though systolic and diastolic pressure measures do not both increase to a similar degree

Systolic pressure

the pressure exerted on the walls of the arteries as the heart contracts (peak pressure)

Diastolic pressure

the pressure exerted on the walls of the arteries as the heart relaxes and fills again (lowest pressure)

Heart rate

Pumps approx. 72 bpm at rest




Each time the heart pumps, it forces blood into the arteries to deliver oxygen and nutrients to the metabolically active tissues of the body




Increases with increased exercise intensity until exhaustion, when it begins to level off. Plateaus with constant work rate at submaximal exercise levels

Stroke volume

the amount of blood that the left ventricle ejects in one beat.



As a client becomes fitter, the ventricle become larger, allowing them to hold more blood and contract with more force. This causes SV to increase




Increases during exercise. Plateaus at exercise intensities between 40-60% of maximal capacity, and remains unchanged up to exhaustion


Cardiac Output

the amount of blood that the heart ejects in 1 minute. It is the product of HR and SV




Q = HR * SV




As demands for O and nutrients increase during exercise, cardiac output increases by increasing both HR and SV.




Increases with increased exercise intensity to ensure adequate oxygen and nutrients reach muscles and waste products are cleared away. Plateaus when Q approaches maximal exercise intensities





Respiratory System

Made up of the mouth, nose, nasal cavity, pharynx, larynx, trachea, bronchial tree, and the lungs




This system exchanges gas between the bloodstream and the environment. Provides a large interface between the air we breathe in and the blood circulating through our lungs, and it is at this interface where oxygen is brought into the bloodstream and carbon dioxide is removed from the blood

Ventilation

the mechanical process of moving air in and out of the lungs



Diffusion

the way gases are exchanged in the lungs

Respiratory anatomy

The mouth and nose inhale air from the atmosphere (21% oxygen)




The air travels through the trachea and enters the primary bronchi and their subdivisions (secondary and tertiary bronchi).




The ends of the tertiary bronchi branches contain bronchioles, which have tiny air sacs called alveoli at their ends.




The alveolar sacs are microscopic, thin-walled elastic sacs where gas is exchanged.




Air fills the alveoli, which are surrounded by capillaries where oxygen rapidly moves from the alveoli into the blood a process called diffusion.




The alveoli receive carbon dioxide from the capillaries for removal through exhalation.

Ventilation

Air moves in and out of the lungs along pressure gradients created by diaphragm contraction and relaxation.




Inspiration is the process of air moving into the lungs and occurs once lung pressure is below atmospheric pressure. This low pressure is created by the diaphragm contracting and pushing down into the abdomen while other inspiratory muscles lift the ribs upward and outward, increasing the volume of the thoracic cavity in which the lungs sit. This creates a partial vacuum and the lungs are sucked open, increasing their volume as a result of the enlarged chest cavity and reducing air pressure within the lungs.




Expiration is the passive process of air moving out of the lungs, occurring when lung pressure exceeds atmospheric pressure. When the diaphragm and the other inspiratory muscles relax and the stretched lungs recoil, the chest cavity decreases in volume, lung air pressure increases above atmospheric pressure, and air is forced out of the lungs.

Exercise response

at rest, 10 L/min


at 1 min, 45 L/min


at 2 min, 60 L/min




The brain recognizes the need for more O to the muscles. It signals the heart to increase HR and SV, which increases Q. The increase in blood volume increase the amount of blood that is carried to the exercising muscles.




Blood flow redistributes away from the abdominal area by vasoconstriction and increases the working muscles by vasodilation




There is also a change in BP to accommodate the increased demand for O. As the demand for blood flow increases, systolic pressure elevates to force blood out of the heart faster and at a higher pressure. Diastolic pressure should stay the same or even slightly decrease due to vasodilation of vessels in the exercising muscles, which reduces the resistance and pressure of the blood



Vasoconstriction

narrowing of the arteries

Vasodilation

widening of the arteries

Health benefits of Cardio training

Reduced risk of heart disease


Reduced resting HR


Normalized resting BP


Improved ability to perform daily activities


Increased aerobic capacity (VO2 max)

FITT

Frequency


Intensity


Type


Time

Frequency considerations

the # of sessions a client can commit to


the client's fitness level


the client's goals for cardio

Intensity considerations

The client's exercise experience


The client's fitness level


The client's goals for cardio

Duration considerations

The client's exercise experience

The client's fitness level


The client's goals for cardio


Type considerations

The client's exercise experience


The client's fitness level


The client's goals for cardio

3 ways trainers can facilitate effective recovery in their clients

1. reducing the intensity and impact of the exercise


2. reducing the range of motion of movements


3. directing clients to consciously start active recovery

Your VO2 max is

a. indicative of your maximum aerobic energy yields


b. the greatest amount of oxygen you can extract and utilize per unit of time


c. a measure of your aerobic capacity


d. all of the above

d

You can increase Q during exercise by..

a. increasing SV

b. decreasing resting HR


c. increasing BP


d. all of the above


a

The respiratory system is responsible for...

a. gas exchange between the lungs and blood


b. moving air into and out of the lungs


c. removing carbon dioxide from the blood


d. all of the above

d

Systolic BP is

a. the peak pressure developed during the ejection phase


b. the lowest pressure developed during the filling phase


c. the result of hypertension


d. the amount of blood pumped from the heart with each heartbeat

a

The target HR range for a healthy 20yr old male should be...

a. 110 to 150 bpm


b. 120 to 170 bpm


c. 140 to 190 bpm


d. 110 to 180 bpm

d

The Borg scale for prescribing exercise intensity is based on...

a. the lactate threshold


b. a % of Vo2 max


c. a % of HRmax


d. perceived exertion

d

Cooling down after activity prevents...

a. venous blood pooling

b. delayed muscle soreness


c. fatigue


d. heart disease




a

For program design, consider..

a. the client's exercise experience


b. the client's current fitness level


c. the client's goals for cardio


d. all of the above

d

An exercise intensity described as somewhat hard is equivalent to...

a. an RPE of 14-16


b. an HR between 65-80% of HRR


c. an HR of 60-79% of HRmax


d. all of the above

c

A 40yr old female with a resting HR of 75bpm would have a minimum HR of _____ to be in the target HR zone using the HRR method.

a. 122 bpm


b. 128 bpm


c. 142 bpm


d. 135 bpm

b

Which of the following increases VO2 max by increasing oxygen extraction?

a. increased capillary density


b. increased SV


c. increased BP


d. increased RBCs

d

The air we breathe in is..

a. 100% oxygen


b. 65% oxygen


c. 34% oxygen


d. 21% oxygen

d

At rest, the muscles receive ___% of the total blood moved from the heart, whereas during exercise, this can be ___%

a. 4;100


b. 20;84


c. 27;75


d. 21;58

b

Untrained people will have a higher resting HR because they..

a. require more O at rest


b. have high BP


c. have a lower SV


d. all of the above

c

Label the heart

Label the respiratory system

Skeletal System

206 bones joined to ligaments and tendons to form a protective, supportive framework for the attached muscles and the soft tissues that underlie it.

Functions of the skeletal system

1. protects the vital organs and soft tissue


2. serves as the factory where RBCs are produced


3. serves as a reservoir for minerals (Ca and P)


4. provides attachments for muscles to produce movement

Appendicular skeleton

Consists of two limb girdles (shoulder/pelvis) and their attached limb bones




Includes 126 bones, 64 in the shoulders and upper limbs and 62 in the pelvis and lower limbs

Axial skeleton

Consists of the skull, spine, ribs, and sternum




Includes 80 bones

Anatomical position

Person stands with arms at the sides, palms facing forward

Anterior & Posterior

front of the body




back of the body

Medial & Lateral

Parts closest to the midline of the body




Parts that are away from the midline of the body

Superior & Inferior

One body part is above another




One body part is below another

Supine & Prone

Body lies face up




Body lies face down

Dorsal & Plantar

Top of the foot




Bottom of the foot

Proximal & Distal

End of a bone or muscle that is closest to the body




End that is farthest from the body

Long bones

Serve as levers for movement




Ex. Femur, humerus

Short bones

Give strength to joints, but with limited mobility




Ex. Tarsals, Carpals

Flat bones

Provide a broad site for muscle attachment; protect the internal organs




Ex. ribs, scapula

Irregular bones

Protect the internal organs and support the body




Ex. ischium, pubis, vertebrae

Flexion

Bending a joint (joint angle decreases)

Extension

Straightening a joint (joint angle increases)

Hyperextension

When movement occurs beyond the normal joint ROM

Abduction

When a bone moves away from the midline of the body




Ex. extending arm above shoulder

Adduction

Bringing a bone toward the midline of the body




Ex. Returning the arm from above the shoulder, down to the side of the body

Circumduction

Circular movement that combines flexion, abduction, extension and adduction.




Occurs at ball-and-socket joints

Medial and Lateral Rotation

To rotate a joint, you turn the moving bone about its axis or centre.




Rotation toward the midline of the body is called medial (internal) rotation




Rotation away from the midline of the body is called lateral (external) rotation

Supination

External movement, or movement way from the midline of the body

Pronation

Internal movement, or movement toward the midline of the body

Inversion

Occurs at the ankle joint.


Turning the medial, or inner, side of the foot off the ground

Eversion

Occurs at the ankle joint.


Turning the lateral, or outer, side of the foot off the ground

Elevation

Shrugging the shoulder upward (scapular elevation)

Depression

Lowering the shoulders below anatomical position (scapular depression)

Joint

Where bones meet.



Three classifications of joints:


- synovial


- fibrous


- cartilaginous

Fibrous joints

Connect bones without allowing any movement.




Ex. bones of the skull, pelvis, verterbrae

Cartilaginous joints

Bones are attached by cartilage. These joints allow for only little movement.




Ex. spine, ribs

Synovial joints

Allow for more movement. These freely movable joints have cartilage long the surface of the bones that join together to reduce friction and absorb shock. They are enclosed by an articular capsule that holds the synovial fluid inside the joint cavity.




Three major type of synovial joints:


- hinge


- condyloid


- ball-and-socket

Hinge joints

Allow movement in one direction




Ex. elbow, knee



Condyloid joints

Allow movement in two directions




Ex. Wrist, ankle



Ball-and-socket joints

Allow movement in three directions and the largest ROM




Ex. shoulder, hip


Ligament

Short band of tough, fibrous connective tissue composed mainly of long, stringy collagen molecules.




Connects bones to bones

Tendon

Tough band of fibrous connective tissue attached on one end to a muscle and on the other to a bone.




Connects muscles to bones

Flexibility

Measure of the ROM around a joint or series of joints




Frequency: 4-7 days


Intensity: point of slight tension


Duration: 5-10 min

Benefits of flexibility training

- reduces stress in the exercising muscles and releases tension developed during workouts


- assists with posture


- reduces risk of injury during exercise


- improves performance of daily activities, exercise and sport

RARI

Static Stretching

involves taking a specific joint or set of joints though a ROM to a comfortable end point (20 sec), resting for 20 sec, then repeating the stretch 2 or 3 times

Dynamic Stretching

Uses increasingly dynamic movements through the full ROM of a joint.




Warms up the joints, maintains current flexibility, and reduces muscle tension

Guidelines for flexibility training

- don't overdo it


- breathe comfortably


- perform flexibility for each muscle group for total-body improvements


- work with warm muscles


- modify

The skeleton provides all of the following essential functions except..

a. protects the vital organs and soft tissue


b. is the factory for RBCs


c. acts as a reservoir for minerals


d. provides attachments for organs and blood vessels

d

What are the three categories of joints?

a. fibrous, cartilaginous, and synovial


b. fibrous, synovial, arthritic


c. cartilaginous, fibrous, and syndesmoses


d. cartilaginous, synovial, and fixed

a

A lever system consists of all of the following except

a. a bone to act as the lever


b. a joint that is the fulcrum or axis of rotation


c. muscular force applied to the lever that causes motion


d. two muscle groups and a fixed joint angle

d

In extension, the joint angle becomes

a. larger

b. smaller


c. weaker


d. stronger


a

Which type of vertebrae is the largest?

a. thoracic


b. sacral


c. lumbar


d. cervical

c

The longest bone in the body is the..

a. tibia


b. ulna


c. patella


d. femur

d

What is the anatomical name for shoulder blade?

Scapula

What is the anatomical name for forearm?

Radius/Ulna

What is the anatomical name for shinbone?

Tibia

What is the anatomical name for kneecap?

Patella

What is the anatomical name for collar bone?

Clavicle



What is the anatomical name for thigh bone?

Femur

Label the anterior view of the skeleton

Label the posterior view of the skeleton

Label the vertebral column

Muscles

Are attached to bone by tendons and they exert force by converting chemical energy into tension and contraction.




They are made up of millions of tiny protein filaments that work together to produce motion in the body.




Equipped with three types:


- cardiac muscle


- smooth muscle


- skeletal muscle







Cardiac muscle

found only in the heart, powers the action that pumps blood throughout the body.

Smooth muscle

surrounds or is part of the internal organs

Skeletal muscle

Carries out voluntary movements




Most abundant tissue in the body, making up 23% of a women's body weight and about 40% of a man's body weight

Muscle structure

More than 600 muscles are in the human body.



Skeletal muscles consist of bunches of elongated rod-shaped cells called muscle fibers. Each fibre is packed full of thinner fibres called myofibrils.



Myofibrils

a smaller structural component that runs the length of the muscle.




Each myofibril is composed of a long series of sarcomeres.

Sarcomere

the basic unit of muscle contraction and comprises of two proteins: actin and myosin




smallest unit of a muscle

Actin

thin filament within the sarcomere

Myosin

thick filament within the sarcomere

Muscle contraction

In a relaxed muscle, thick and thin myofilaments overlap each other a bit. When a muscle cell is stimulated by a nerve impulse, these myofilaments slide past each other until they completely overlap. Myosin pull on the actin in order to pull the ends of the sarcomere closer together. The cell shortens, and as other cells shorten at the same time, so does the entire muscle.




Muscle force will be greater when more motor units are involved in a contraction. The motor units will be bigger and the rate at which the motor units fire will be faster.



3 types of contractions

1. Concentric

2. Eccentric


3. Isometric



Concentric contraction

Also called Isotonic




Movement occurs when the muscle contracts with enough force to shorten




Ex. lifting phase of a biceps curl

Eccentric contraction

Also called Isotonic




The muscle generates tension, but as it exerts force, it lengthens




Ex. lowering phase of a biceps curl

Isometric contraction

In this static contraction, the muscle exerts force to counteract an opposing force; no change in muscle length occurs




A muscle generates its greatest force at resting length.




Ex. holding the arm at a fixed angle of 90 degrees with resistance in one's hand

Basic Organization of the Nervous System

The ability to perform coordinated and skilled movement requires coordination between the muscular system and the nervous system.




Divided into two parts:


- CNS


- PNS




Nerve signals are transported in the body by neurons, or nerve cells. There are two kinds: sensory and motor.

CNS

Central Nervous System




Composed of the brain and spinal crd and is enclosed by the skull and spinal column.




It is the control centre of the nervous system because it receives information from the PNS and develops an appropriate response.

PNS

Peripheral Nervous System




Consists of nerves that connect the extremities to the brain.




It continuously delivers information about all body parts to the brain for processing

Sensory Neurons

Carry information and sensations from the body and environment to the CNS

Motor Neurons

Carry information from the CNS back to the muscles to create a response or movement

Proprioceptors

Specialized sensory receptors found in joints, muscles, and tendons. They are sensitive to pressure and tension and are responsible for sending messages to the CNS in order to maintain muscle tone and perform coordinated movements

Muscle spindles

Proprioceptors that consist of several modified muscle fibres enclosed in a blanket of connective tissue.




They provide information concerning muscle fibre length and the rate of change in its length.

GTOs

Golgi-tendon organs are proprioceptors in the tendons.




They are activated when the tendon attached to an active muscle is stretched. They function similarly to the muscle spindles in that they also measure changes in the muscle.




The GTO only becomes activated when the muscle contracts. GTOs are not concerned with changes in muscle length, but rather with the increased tension of the muscle as a result of a change in its length.




They have a high-threshold, slowly adapting receptors and apparently serve, at least in part, to prevent excessive stresses in joints.

Fast-twitch muscle fibers

ATP is produced at the fastest rate




They contract quickly and produce a great deal of force, but fatigue quickly




They work anaerobically

Slow-twitch muscle fibers

Contains lots of mitochondria and capillaries for oxygen delivery




Contract slowly and produce a smaller amount of force than fast-twitch fibers, but are resistant to fatigue




Work aerobically



Factors that play a role in a muscle's ability to generate force (strength)

- Neural control (muscle force is greater when: more motor units are involved, motors units are bigger in size, and the rate at which the motor units fir is faster)


- Muscle size


- Muscle length


- Speed of contraction

5 Benefits of Resistance Training

- Size of muscle fiber


- Muscle contractile strength


- Muscle group coordination


- Contractile strength of tendons and ligaments


- Bone strength

SMMCB

Isometric Training

Length of the muscle does not change when force is applied against a fixed resistance.



- static muscle contraction


- does not require the limbs to move


- strength gains occur only within a certain range of the joint angle exercised

Isotonic Training

- includes either constant or variable resistance


- involves concentric muscle contractions


- involves eccentric muscle contractions



Isokinetic Training

- uses specialized equipment that controls the speed of movement


- resistance matches the strength of the muscle


- changes are accommodated in mechanical advantage

Circuit training

Sets of strength, cardio, and flexibility training combined with little or no time between sets

Straight Sets

Exercises completed on an even tempo, one at a time with 1 to 2 min of rest between sets of different muscle groups

Pyramid

Multiple sets combined in either or both ascending or descending fashion

Split Training

Muscle groups divided based on the client's goals, scheduled workout days, and personal preferences

Supersets

Two or more sets combined with little or no rest for the same or different muscle groups

Improper resistance training programs can lead to:

- injury


- dissatisfaction or lack of enjoyment


- lack of results


- loss of clients

IDLL

Synergists

Muscles that reduce undesirable or unnecessary movements that might result as the prime mover contracts

Agonists

Muscles that assume the major responsibility for producing a specific movement

Antagonists

Muscles that oppose, or reverse, a particular movement by a prime mover

Characteristics of good posture

A straight line through the ears, shoulder, hips, knees, and ankles




Head centered over the body




Shoulders, hips, and knees of equal height




Neutral spine, meaning the pelvis is not tipped forward or backward and the upper back is not curved forward

Muscles are attached to bones by..

a. ligaments


b. tendons


c. synergists


d. prime movers

b

The prime mover for elbow extension is the...

a. biceps


b. triceps


c. deltoid


d. pectoralis minor

b

The basic unit of muscle contraction is

a. the myofibril


b. the muscle fibre


c. the sarcomere


d. actin

c

The main responsibility of the PNS is to

a. deliver info about all body parts to the brain for processing


b. deliver info from the brain to the activated muscles


c. receive info from the muscles to produce coordinated movements


d. none of the above

a

The GTO is active when..

a. the muscle spindles send a signal


b. the tendon contracts


c. the muscle is relaxed


d. the tendon is relaxed

b

Muscle balance as it relates to a resistance training program means..

a. there should be equal focus on both the antagonist and the agonist muscle groups


b. equal weight is lifted on all muscle groups


c. the upper body and lower body should be trained on separate days


d. none of the above

a

The FITT formula stands for..

a. frequency, intensity, type and training


b. fast-twitch, intensity, type, and time


c. frequency, intensity, type and time


d. frequency, intensity, total load, and time

c

In the first 6 to 8 weeks of resistance training, beginners experience significant results. This is due to...

a. improvements in technique


b. improvements in motor unit recruitment


c. improved cardio performance


d. good spotting techniques

b

When the muscle length does not change, the action is..

a. isotonic


b. concentric


c. eccentric


d. isometric

d

The benefits of regular resistance training include all of the following except...

a. increases in muscle fiber size


b. increases in contractile strength


c. increases in bone and ligament strength


d. increases in flexibility

d

The recommended repetition range for a beginner is..

a. 12 to 15


b. 15 to 20


c. 8 to 10


d. fewer than 8

a

Name the antagonist muscles for the following agonists:


- quads


- triceps


- rectus abdominus


- gastrocnemius


- trapezius

- hamstrings


- biceps


- erector spinae


- tibialis anterior


- lattisimus dorsi

Name exercises to develop biceps

Cable Lat row


Barbell Lat row



Name exercises to develop deltoid

Barbell chest press


Cable Lat row



Name exercises to develop pectoralis major

Barbell Chest Press


Dumbbell Chest Fly

Name exercises to develop rectus abdominus

Shoulder to Knee Curl Up


Partial Ab Curl Up



Name exercises to develop lattisimus dorsi

Barbell Lat row


Cable Lat pull down

Name exercises to develop erector spinae

Barbell squats


Back Extension

Name exercises to develop gluteus maximus

Barbell squat


Plank

Name exercises to develop hamstrings

Machine Leg curl


Barbell squat

Name exercises to develop quadriceps

Barbell squat


Machine Leg extension

Name exercises to develop gastrocnemius

Dumbbell heel raise


Machine heel raise

Name exercises to develop tibialis anterior

Top Drop

What are some benefits of supersets?

- Increased LA production


- Time-efficient


- Muscle fiber activation

What are some benefits of split training?

- able to have variety


- train harder


- specific muscles are trained

List spotting guidelines for both upper- and lower-body exercises

- keep hands close to barbell without obstructing movement


- assist when predetermined movement decreases


- keep back in neutral position with knees flexed

Name the muscles involved in a Squat

Quads, Hip extensors, spinal extensors



Name the muscles involved in a Toe raise

Tibialis anterior



Name the muscles involved in a arm curl

Biceps group

Name the muscles involved in a lat pull down

lattisimus dorsi


biceps group

Name the muscles involved in a bench press

pectoralis major


triceps group

Name the muscles involved in a chin up

Up phase:


- lattisimus dorsi, teres major


- biceps, triceps


Down phase:


- lattisimus dorsi


- biceps, triceps

Pain

A message originating somewhere in the body that indicates a lack of normal tissue function or homeostasis.




Body tells us that something is wrong and needs investigation and possible treatment.




Two kinds of pain:


- Mechanical


- Systemic

Mechanical pain

result of damage to the musculoskeletal system in which pain is created by a mechanical action or motion

Systemic pain

the result of a disease, infection, or medical condition

Acute injury

results from the application of a single force or load, creating tissue damage and leading to immediate pain and dysfunction

Symptoms of an Acute injury

Can include one or more of the following:


- immediate pain


- stiffness


- muscle spasm

Signs of an Acute injury

Can include one or more of the following:


- immediate swelling at the injury site


- bruising


- redness and increased warmth


- tenderness


- loss of normal function


- loss of muscle strength


- loss of motion

List actions in the event of an acute injury

1. Professional medical opinion


2. Rest


3. Ice


4. Compression


5. Elevation

PRICE

Recommendations for Acute Injuries

1. recommend a physician exam


2. discontinue training until a written endorsement is given


3. if undergoing treatment, contact physician to determine if exercising with you is ok or not.


4. unless instructed otherwise by a physician, recommend icing until the site of injury is no longer stiff and is no longer swollen.

Prevention of Acute injuries

1. Intrinsic risk factors are those that affect the tensile strength of a tissue during exercise and increase the risk of injury. Ex. muscle weakness, muscle inflexibility, muscle imbalances, joint laxity




2. Extrinsic risk factors are external to the client's physical and psychological status and include environmental factors such as temperature, humidity, exercise equipment, and fitness apparel or shoes

Steps to preventing acute injuries

1. profile your client for the presence of any intrinsic risk factors


2. use the client profile to select the safest and most appropriate exercises


3. use the profile to determine a safe and appropriate dose of exercise


4. ensure that your client is instructed on proper technique in all exercises, including warm up and cool down


5. ensure that your client can independently demonstrate proper execution of all exercises, including safe operation of any associated exercise equipment


6. ensure the safety of the exercise environment by maintaining the exercise equipment



Overuse injuries

Result from repetitive tissue loading over time in which no single load is sufficient to cause significant tissue damage and immediate pain

Symptoms of an Overuse injury

Can include one or more of the following:


- low-grade discomfort at the site of the injury


- discomfort in activities of daily living other than exercise


- sensation of stiffness at the site of the injury


- progression in the intensity of pain with continued exercise or activity



Signs of an Overuse injury

Can include one or more of the following:


- alteration of normal biomechanics to avoid pain


- swelling


- loss of pain-free motion with normal activities


- tenderness to touch

List the actions in the event of an Overuse injury

- modify their training program


- explore changes to their exercise technique or equipment


- monitor their symptoms with any progression in training volume

Prevention of Overuse Injuries

Three concepts:


- client education


- dose and volume of exercise


- progressing a training program

Overuse Injuries: Client Education

Overuse injuries are preventable through good communication and education with your clients.

Overuse Injuries: Dose and Volume of Exercise

The primary cause of overuse injuries is an imbalance between the physiological tissue damage created by an exercise or motion and the degree of tissue repair that's achieved before repeating the exercise.




The key to preventing overuse injuries is ensuring the exercise is not only appropriate for the client and their health profile but also the dose of exercise is appropriate, specifically in terms of frequency, intensity and volume.

Overuse Injuries: Progressing a Training program

To avoid an imbalance, the rate of progression should not exceed the client's rate of adaptability for their age and health profile




To reduce the risk of overuse injury in a new client, an argument could be made to error on the side of safety and limit any progression in a given exercise program to 10%

Responsibilities to prevent an Overuse Injury

- educate your clients on the consequence of exercising through pain


- educate clients that exercising a painful muscle or joint will likely only make their pain worse


- create an environment where clients are under no fear or pressure to exercise with pain


- ask your clients before every session if they are pain free


- profile your client for the presence of any intrinsic risk factors


- ensure that any equipment used by your client fits well and is in good operational condition


- use the client profile to select the most appropriate exercises


- using your profile, educate your client on a safe and appropriate rate of exercise progresion

EECAPEUU

Preexercise Screening allows you to do the following

- be professional and fulfill legal responsibilities (duty of care)


- identify a possible need to refer the client to additional health professionals


- understand the client better and establish good communication


- identify areas of strength or weakness based on previous injury


- develop a precise, individualized exercise program


- determine safe and effective exercise

BIUIDD

Purpose of Preexercise Screening

Identifies people who have:


- known disease


- signs and symptoms of a disease that is as of yet undiagnosed


- increased cardiac risk


- risks inherent in activity due to their age

KSIR

Risk factors for increased cardiac risk

- age (men over 45 and women over 55)


- family history of disease


- smoking


- hypertension & high BP


- high cholesterol


- diabetes


- sedentary lifestyle

AFSHHDS

Physical Activity Readiness Questionnaire

PAR-Q




This form is used as an initial health screening tool, and is administered before clients begin a physical activity program.




Designed to identify people who require medical clearance before participating in a new exercise program, and it helps cover two prescreening topics: known disease and signs and symptoms




Appropriate for people between ages 15 and 69.




If one or more questions is answered "yes", they should seek medical advice before becoming more physically active

Health History Questionnaire

May include:


- client details (name, address, phone #, emergency contact)


- current medical conditions


- medication use and allergies


- current and past injuries


- treatment from health care professionals


- cardiac risks


- family health history


- past and present exercise history


- past and present nutritional information


- past and present work history

CCMCTCFPPP

Determining risk for exercise from PAR-Q and HHQ

Process that involves risk stratification, or placing your client into one of three categories:


- apparently healthy


- increased risk


- known disease



Apparently healthy

Answered "no" to all of the questions on PAR-Q, exhibits no signs or symptoms of disease, and has no more than one major cardiac risk factor




These people are able to start a moderate-intensity exercise program and undergo fitness testing without a referral from a medical practitioner

Increased risk

Clients at increased risk will have two or more coronary risk factors but exhibit no signs or symptoms of cardiorespiratory or metabolic disorders.




These clients may start a progressive moderate-intensity program under close supervision.




SHOULD undergo clinically supervised maximal testing procedures

Known disease

Clients who have two or more coronary risk factors and exhibit positive signs or symptoms or have known cardiac, pulmonary, or metabolic disorders should be referred to a health professional for testing and exercise guidance

Referrals

Any clients who answer "yes" to a question on the PAR-Q or have two or more cardiovascular risk factors along with positive signs and symptoms should be directed to consult with their physician before engaging in a physical activity program

Negligence may occur when

a. there is a breach of the duty to exercise due care


b. someone gets injured


c. someone dies


d. you do not fill your client's expectations

a



Which of the following is not a cardiac risk factor?

a. smoking


b. high BP


c. being a male over 35 years old


d. sedentary lifestyle

c

Preexercise screening must be able to identify those individuals who have any of the following:



a. risks inherent in activity due to their age


b. signs and symptoms of a disease that is as of yet undiagnosed


c. increased cardiac risk


d. all of the above

d

The PAR-Q

a. is a waiver for people between 15 and 75 years old


b. identifies cardiac risk factors


c. provides informed consent for physical activity


d. identifies people who should seek medical advice before becoming more physically active

d

An apparently healthy individual is one who

a. answered yes to all questions on the PAR-Q


b. has no more than three cardiac risk factors


c. can start a moderate-intensity exercise program without a medical referral


d. exhibits no more than two signs and symptoms of disease

c

Purpose of Fitness and lifestyle assessments

- determines a client's current health status


- determines lifestyle factors that may be counterproductive to the client's fitness goals


- identifies a client's actual fitness level for muscular strength, endurance, cardiovascular endurance, body comp, and flexibility


- determines the client's strengths and weaknesses for the purpose of goal setting and counselling


- isolates significant injuries or risk factors that might affect the client's ability to exercise with a PT


- develops a unique, individualized, and accurate exercise prescription for each client


- establishes a baseline and sets a standard for the client to measure future progress


- motivates clients, thus increasing exercise adherence and compliance

DDIDIDEM

Resting Heart Rate

Measured by placing the fingers on a pulse site.




To get the most accurate reading, you can instruct clients to measure resting HR for at least 30 seconds in the morning before getting out of bed




Normal resting HR is 70 bpm for men and 75 bpm for women




A resting HR of 100 bpm or higher is a warning sign to look more closely at the client's overall health and request a doctor's clearance before training the client

Resting Blood Pressure

Measured using a stethoscope and a sphygmomanometer.




First tapping sound: systolic


When tapping quits: diastolic




Normal resting systolic pressure is 120 mmHg. Diastolic is 80 mmHG.




144/94 mmHg is normal.




Systolic higher than 140 or diastolic higher than 100 mmHg should be referred to a doctor for clearance to exercise

Testing order

1. Prescreening measures


2. Body comp analysis


3. Warm up


4. Cardiorespiratory fitness


5. Muscular strength and endurance


6. Flexibility

Body Composition Analysis

The purpose of assessing body comp is to divide the body into the primary tissue (muscle, fat, bone, organ) and chemical (lipid and nonlipid) masses.

Body Composition Measures

Skinfolds and Girths


Waist Girth Measurements


Bioelectric Impedence Analysis


Predicting Health risk

Skinfolds and Girths

Skinfolds measure the thickness of a double fold of skin and underlying adipose tissue (fat)




Girths measure the total circumference of either a limb or the trunk at predetermined levels. They include skin, fat, muscle and bone.

Waist Girth Measurements

Obtained to help identify fat distribution in the abdominal region which is associated with increased health risk

Bioelectric Impedance Analysis

Equipment send a mild electrical current through the body from the wrist to the foot. The more lean tissue the client has, the quicker the current; vice versa

Benefits of Bioelectric Impedance Analysis

- Quick, easy, and noninvasive


- no technician required


- analyzers are inexpensive


- analyzers provide a print out including fat-free mass, fat mass, the ratio of fat to total body mass, and ideal weight

Drawbacks of Bioelectric Impedance Analysis

- specificity of equations


- sensitivity of measured resistance to the placement of electrodes and hydration status


- variability among analyzers

Predicting Health Risk

Using clients' height and weight, you can determine their BMI, which indicates whether they are carrying an acceptable amount of body weight for their height.




BMI = kg/m(squared)

Cardiorespiratory Fitness

the efficiency of the cardiovascular, respiratory, and muscular systems at delivering and extracting oxygen for energy production and mechanical muscle work




The measurement of this fitness parameter is expressed as VO2 max, also known as maximal oxygen uptake

Rockport Walking Fitness Test

Walking test to assess cardiorespiratory fitness for men and women within the age range of 20-69 yrs.




Clients walk 1 mile as quickly as possible.




VO2 max = 132.853 - BW(lbs) - age + gender(1-m; 0-f) - time(min) - HR

Muscular Strength and Endurance Testing

Maximum amount of force that can be exerted one time, or in the 1-rep max (1RM).




Categorized into:


- normative


- nonnormative

Normative Strength Testing

Have values that rate the level of performance of the items being tested.




Ex. grip strength, 10-rep max test

Grip strength

Assesses upper-body strength using a hand-grip dynamometer, where the client squeezes the handle with maximal effort using both the right and left hands

Nonnormative Strength Tests

Do not possess any data for comparison and therefore there are no ratings.



Ex. Percent-improvement tests


Normative Muscular Endurance Tests

Two tests for muscular endurance:


- push-up protocol


- abdominal curl-up protocol

Push-up Protocol

The client performs as many push-ups as possible until muscular failure occurs.

Abdominal Curl-up Protocol

Measures endurance of the abdominal muscles by having the client perform a maximum number of curl-ups in 60 seconds.

Benefits of evaluating flexibility

Detecting muscle imbalances and joint instabilities helps you develop exercises that correct these weaknesses and reduce the risk of injury

Sources of Error in Fitness Testing

Client factors


Equipment


Personal Training Skill


Environmental factors

Client factors

Familiarize them with the equipment and testing procedures.

Equipment

May affect scores.




Be sure equipment is calibrated and in proper working condition

Personal Trainer Skill

Observation skills, technique mastery, and familiarity with testing protocols will allow for accurate test administration and results

Environmental factors

Room temperature, humidity, and people present may affect test scores.

Before testing, clients should be told:

a. to not exercise for 4 hours before


b. to not drink alcohol for 1 hour before


c. to not drink caffeine for 12 hours before


d. all of the above

c

Clients should not participate in the active portions of the fitness test if their resting...

a. HR is greater than 100


b. systolic BP is greater than 120


c. diastolic BP is less than 75


d. breathing rate is greater than 12 breaths per min

a

The tapping sounds heard when measuring BP are...

a. Korotkoff sounsd


b. HR


c. Cardiac output


d. pulse pressure



a

An example of a test of muscular endurance is

a. completion of one chin-up

b. repeated push-ups to exhaustion


c. grip strength test


d. the vertical jump



b

Prediction of VO2 max is dependent on measurement of..

a. BP

b. HR and workload


c. Height


d. all of the above


b

Four elements of Good Program Design

1. Safe


2. Effective


3. Efficient


4. Enjoyable

SEEE

Periodization

the systematic organization of training periods to facilitate the most efficient path from goal setting to goal attainment

canfitpro Model of Periodization components

- Macrocycle: largest; several months to years


- Mesocycle: intermediate; 1 to several months


- Microcycle: smallest; 1 to several weeks




Periodization both ensures more confidence in the expected outcome as well as provides a record to look back at after a certain amount of time and examine what worked and what did not.




Focuses on fitness as developed through strength training, cardiorespiratory training, and flexibility training.

Traditional Periodization

based on preparing for sport to improve technical skill, psychological stamina, and tactical training as well as fitness.

Application of Periodization to Program Design

One must balance stress with recovery. This balance is based on the clients' fitness, nutrition, and commitment to recovery.

canfitpro's Training Principles

1. FITT


2. Individualization


3. Specificity


4. Progressive overload


5. Recovery


6. Structural Tolerance


7. All-around development


8. Reversibility


9. Maintenance

FISPRSARM

5 Steps to Designing a Program

1. Information Gathering


2. Prioritization of Goals


3. Creation and Evaluation of the Program


4. Delivery of the Program


5. Reassessment

IPCDR

Information Gathering

Includes:


- health screening results


- fitness assessment results


- health history


- exercise history


- client preferences


- client goals


- predicted obstacles


- available equipment inventory


- resources

HFHECCPAR

Prioritization of Goals

By working with the clients, they will better understand the process, in addition to recognizing whatever obstacles may prevent them from achieving their goals

Creation and Evaluation of the Program

- Warm up


- Strength training


- Cardiorespiratory training


- Flexibility training and cool-down


- Breaks between exercises or modes of training


- Unforeseen interruptions

WSCFBU

Warm Up

To make sure the body and mind are ready for the workout.

Strength Training

It is more efficient to continue the warm up and move right into the cardio training because the client is likely to already be on a piece of cardio equipment




If the client's goals include an emphasis on muscular development, the strength training should follow the warm-up so that the client has the most energy and enthusiasm for this component



Flexibility

Incorporated into the cool-down.




After cardio, the muscles will be warmed up and more pliable; the muscles will be more receptive to flexibility training

Choosing Exercises




Repetitions (reps)

a single complete movement or exercise



Ex. one rep of a dumbbell bicep curl

Sets

a combination of reps without rest



Ex. 12 reps of a dumbbell bicep curl

Load

the amount of resistance used for a given exercise

Tempo

the speed at which the exercise is performed

Rest

the time between sets of exercises

Open Kinetic Chain Exercises

The foot or hand is free to move in space, such as performing a seated leg extension or a lat-pull down or kicking a ball

Closed Kinetic Chain Exercises

The foot or hand is typically fixed and cannot move throughout the exercise, such as in performing a barbell squat or a chin-up or getting out of a chair

Factors for choosing equipment

Include:


- where the exercises are performed


- whether anyone else will be using the equipment


- how easy it is to perform the exercise correctly in the context of the client's skill and confidence

WWH

Establishing expectations

It is your responsibility to communicate clearly what they should expect of the process as well as what your expectations are for them and what expectations they should have of you

First training session

Goal of the first session is to orient the client to the program and lay the foundation for future sessions by teaching correct technique and increasing the client's self-confidence

Subsequent Training sessions

Important to continue to correct exercises and reinforce proper technique. Continually challenge clients by introducing new exercises or variations of existing exercises every few sessions

The __________ is the largest component of a periodized program.

a. mesocycle


b. macrocycle


c. microcycle


d. manocycle

b

To apply periodization to program design, you must balance stress with

a. proper nutrition


b. commitment


c. recovery


d. realistic goals

c

You can train for as little as ___ of the volume but at the same intensity for up to 12 weeks to prevent reversibility.

a. 1/4


b. 1/2


c. 2/3


d. 1/3

d

An example of specificity as applied to marathon training would be:

a. cycling to and from work M, W, and F


b. walking 10-15 min per day for 6 mths


c. running up and down stadium stairs


d. progressively running longer distances for 12 to 24 weeks before the marathon

d

After ceasing a regular workout routine of 3 days per week for 6 months, your client notices that muscle definition has begun to decrease. This is an example of:

a. specificity


b. recovery


c. reversibility


d. individualization

c

Which of the following components is not important to gather before designing a program?

a. exercise history


b. food intolerances


c. client goals


d. available equipment inventory

b

If your client's goal is muscular development, where should strength training be positioned in relation to the program?

a. after the warm up


b. before the warm up


c. after the cardio workout


d. after the workout

a

If you ask a client to perform an exercise with a temp of 3:1:5:0, the 3 represents what?

a. the eccentric action of the movement


b. the concentric action of the movement


c. the pause between eccentric and concentric action


d. the pause between concentric and eccentric action

b

Which of the following is a disadvantage of working with free weights?

a. free weights do not imitate real-world resistance


b. free weights are relatively low cost


c. free weights are sometimes hard to control


d. free weights are versatile

c

Describe the types of things you need to communicate to your clients about equipment that will permit them to work out on their own with confidence

- how to use it (technique)


- where it is located


- how to adjust it

What are some of the elements you need to watch for with clients after the first few sessions?

- correct exercises and proper technique

Balancing the Program

Balancing of components is critical, but only within the context of the individual client.




Requires you to have the creativity to design a program that is actually unbalanced in order to help balance the needs and goals of the client

Modifying Programs

To ensure optimal success, great personal trainers not only plan variety within their programs, they also anticipate when and where clients will need variation

When to change a program

Rule of thumb: every 2 weeks





Steps to making changes to your client's program

1. tell clients that you will be making changes on a regular basis


2. inform them that you will be making a change


3. make changes slowly and incrementally


4. anticipate areas of difficulty or risk given the changes and plan for them


5. assess results from changes


6. be flexible and make adjustments


7. ask clients for feedback

TIMAABA

The Program Card

Some cards simply outline the exercises to be performed, whereas others may provide space to record progress, while others may include illustrations to remind the client of the exercise

Program Card Elements

- client identification


- exercises


- sets and set performance


- reps and tempo of the reps


- rest between sets


- cues or comments to remind the client on how to perform the exercise



CESRRC

Qualities of an effective Personal Trainer

- Knowledgeable


- Supportive


- Model of Healthy behaviour


- Trustworthy


- Enthusiastic


- Innovative


- Patient


- Sensitive


- Self-aware


- Able to access material resources and services


- Able to generate expectations of success


- Committed to providing timely, specific feedback


- Capable of providing clear, reasonable instructions and plans

KSMTEIPSFSAACC

Appropriate Behaviours for PTs

- Maintain a strictly professional relationship with all clients


- Only give exercise-related advice to clients in areas in which you have received formal training


- Only design programs for clients who are relatively healthy and free of any special conditions or diseases unless you have been trained to work with this type of client

MOO

Stages of Change Model

1. Pre-contemplation


2. Contemplation


3. Preparation


4. Action


5. Maintenance

PCPAM

Pre-contemplation

The person is not seriously thinking about changing or starting an exercise program




- increase awareness of exercise


- pros/cons of exercise


- general education


- discuss health risks


- discuss myths and fears

Contemplation

The person has started to think about exercising or changing behaviour and has most likely identified a course of action




- continue with education


- specific recommendations


- identify support system


- increase self-confidence

Preparation

The person has actually begun to plan for the change and may have made some minor changes in behaviour




- evaluate support system and barriers


- provide personalized exercises


- work on goal setting and action

Action

The person has taken action and has begun to make changes, but it has been less than 6 months since the person started making these changes




- talk about self-monitoring


- talk about self-reinforcement


- enhance SE


- try to prevent relapses


- deal with relapses


- provide encouragement

Maintenance

Begins 6 months after the person has successfully adhered to an exercise program




- review and revise goals and program


- try to prevent relapses


- provide social support

Motivational strategies

- provide positive behavioural feedback


- encourage group participation and group support


- recruit spouse and peers


- provide a flexible routine


- provide periodic exercise testing


- use behavioural change strategies


- chart progress on record cards


- recognize goal achievement


- make fitness fun

PERPPUCRM

Lifestyle Fitness coaching

An ongoing and guided process of dialogue between a client and a health fitness professional that is:


- informed by comprehensive fitness-related data about clients needs, interests, and personal orientations


- directed toward broad-based goals of personal and health gains that are attained through sustained involvement in physical activities, which are adjusted periodically according to the clients' evolving life agendas

The cognitive variables that have been the best predictors of physical activity are __________ and __________.

a. self-efficacy; self-reliance


b. self-efficacy; self-motivation


c. goal setting; experience


d. goal setting; ability to focus

b

Studies have shown that women tend to prefer to exercise

a. on their own


b. in small groups


c. with a partner


d. in the water

a



The stages of change model is also known as the

a. behaviour modification model


b. transmyopic model


c. transfat model


d. transtheoretical model

d

During this stage, the client has started to think about exercising and has most likely identified a potential course of action

a. preparation


b. action


c. contemplation


d. precontemplation

c

Self-monitoring and self-reinforcement are characteristics of what stage?

a. preparation


b. action


c. contemplation


d. precontemplation

b

4 P's to marketing

Price


Product


Place


Promotion

Product

The product is actually you and your services.




3 factors when looking at your product:


- differentiation


- development


- positioning

Differentiation

refers to your ability to separate yourself from other personal trainers and make yourself unique

Development

Constantly looking for ways to offer new programming ideas or information that will keep clients motivated and working toward their goals

Positioning

perception that people have of you and your business

Steps to selling your services

1. focus on the prospective clients and what they want


2. show them how you can help them achieve their goals


3. develop an action plan that outlines what you will do and the results they will see


4. ask for feedback on the plan


5. present your prices


6. overcome any objections


7. follow up

FSDAPOF

Ways to present prices

Alternate close method


Assumptive close method


Suggestive close method


Trial close method

Alternate close method

You present two option sand then ask which is best for the person

Assumptive close method

You are assuming the person will purchase from you.

Suggestive close method

You are suggesting what the person should purchase

Trial close method

Used before the actual sale presentation and before asking for the sale




You are asking people what they think of things throughout the process

Overcoming objections

Common objections:


- i want to think about it


- its too much money


- i need to talk it over with someone




You need to accept that objections are going to happen. The majority of objections can be dealt with ahead of time through the use of proper trial closes.




1. Clarify the objection (why or what?)


2. Answer questions, if any

Ways to follow up

- call to thank new clients for trusting you with their business


- call them to see if they have any questions and to find out what needs to happen to get them back in


- call them to see how they are feeling after their first workout

CCC

Professional Image

- Dress appropriately


- Establish proper grooming

DE

Client-Trainer Relationship

One of the keys to a good client-trainer relationship is that both parties know what to expect from each other. Best way to do this is by formalizing them into a document.

Topics of client-trainer relationship agreement

- term of the agreement (length)


- fees and payment structure


- cancellation policy


- late policy


- refund policy


- informed consent

TFCLRI

Other areas to pay attention to:

- professional image


- integrity


- motivation and attitude


- personality types


- general communication

PIMPG

Guidelines for Risk Management

- Always act within the canfitpro scope of practice


- Act in a reasonable and prudent manner


- Ensure that all of your clients have filled out PAR-Q


- Ensure that all clients have signed a waiver


- Ensure that you have followed up with your clients on any areas within the health history that are of concern and that clients get written authorization from a physician


- Ensure that your clients are always safe and working within their own capabilities


- After initial assessment and program design, it is your responsibility to continually reassess your clients


- Ensure that your CPR certification is always up to date


- If you are not an employee of a company, you are required to have your own liability insurance

AAEEEEAEI

Litigious Situations

- working outside your scope of practice


- prescribing exercise to injured clients


- designing meal plans


- exposing clients to unsafe or risky exercises


- making false claims that cannot be supported in research

WPDEM

Policies and Procedures

- establish a fixed pricing policy and don't sway from it unless critical


- cancellation with less than 24 hrs notice, clients should be charged for that session


- clients should be offered a money-back guarantee if they are not satisfied

ECC

Which of the following is not one of the 4 P's of marketing?

a. product


b. price


c. place


d. program

d

The isochrone is typically a travel radius of ___ minutes around your location?

a. 5-7

b. 8-12


c. 15-20


d. 20-30




b

________ is the perception that people have about you and your business.

a. positioning


b. pricing


c. differentiation


d. marketing

a

The key to long-term success as a PT is your ability to recognize...

a. traffic


b. phone calls


c. referrals


d. publicity

c

Asking "when can we get started?" is an example of which type of closing method?

a. trial close


b. alternate close


c. suggestive close


d. assumptive close

d

Which of the following is not an important part of the PT agreement?

a. appointment time


b. fees


c. cancellation policy


d. informed consent

a